social science section 3

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social science section 3
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  1. 1620. two important international events that followed the New Deal
    World War II and the Cold War (USSRG:82,1,1)
  2. 1621. How did World War II cause economic recovery?
    through large government spending and job creation (USSRG:82,1,1)
  3. 1622. year by which the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps had been ended
    1943 (USSRG:82,1,1)
  4. 1623. How did Democrats fare in the 1942 United States elections?
    diminished their congressional majority (USSRG:82,1,1)
  5. 1624. Dr. Win‐the‐War
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s nickname for himself during World War II (USSRG:82,1,1)
  6. 1625. year in which Republicans began to dismantle New Deal agencies
    1938 (USSRG:82,1,1)
  7. 1626. two agencies through which government spending was expanded during World War II
    War Production Board and National Resources Planning Board (USSRG:82,1,2)
  8. 1627. Why was the United States economy able to grow more quickly than European economies during World War II?
    was not attacked on the home front (USSRG:82,1,3)
  9. 1628. the only nation with the atomic bomb at the end of World War II
    the United States (USSRG:82,2,0)
  10. 1629. Why did the United States possess worldwide military influence after World War II?
    The war had spread its military all over the world. (USSRG:82,2,0)
  11. 1630. the United States’ ideological rival in the Cold War
    the Soviet Union (USSRG:82,2,0)
  12. 1631. three types of competition between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War
    economic, political, and military competition (USSRG:82,2,0)
  13. 1632. How were the millions of Cold War‐era United States veterans received upon their return?
    given veterans’ benefits (USSRG:82,2,0)
  14. 1633. two ways in which the Cold War affected American unions
    became conservative and purged suspected communists (USSRG:82,2,0)
  15. 1634. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s successor as president
    Harry S. Truman (USSRG:83,1,1)
  16. 1635. How did the New Deal change the United States federal government?
    expanded its institutions concerned with social and economic policy (USSRG:83,1,1)
  17. 1636. When did the New Deal end?
    1937 (USSRG:83,1,2)
  18. 1637. With which policy did the New Deal end?
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s court‐packing plan (USSRG:83,1,2)
  19. 1638. only significant New Deal legislation passed after 1937
    Fair Labor Standards Act (USSRG:83,1,2)
  20. 1639. Which political party lost seats in the election of 1938?
    Democratic Party (USSRG:83,1,2)
  21. 1640. fraction of Americans that received aid from the federal government during the New Deal
    one‐third (USSRG:83,1,2)
  22. 1641. Which entity became responsible for defusing economic crises after the New Deal?
    the federal government (USSRG:83,1,2)
  23. 1642. three distinct purposes of New Deal policies
    relieve hardship, stimulate the economy, and prevent a recurrence of the conditions that had caused the Great Depression (USSRG:83,1,3)
  24. 1643. three New Deal programs that still impact Americans’ lives today
    Social Security, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (USSRG:83,1,3)
  25. 1644. How did the New Deal affect the constituency of the Democratic Party?
    increased it (USSRG:83,1,4)
  26. 1645. percentage of Americans on relief programs voting Democratic in 1936
    84% (USSRG:83,2,0)
  27. 1646. Why did unions ally with the Democrats after World War II?
    had made unions a recognized force in the United States (USSRG:83,2,1)
  28. 1647. How did American immigrants increasingly begin to see themselves after World War II?
    as normal white Americans (USSRG:83,2,1)
  29. 1648. hyphenated Americans
    United States immigrants with their own distinct cultures (USSRG:83,2,1)
  30. 1649. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt address American immigrants?
    as his peers (USSRG:83,2,1)
  31. 1650. only region in which the Democratic Party was “solid” prior to the New Deal
    the South (USSRG:83,2,1)
  32. 1651. How did the Democratic Party appeal to the middle class during the New Deal?
    with programs that helped families (USSRG:83,2,2)
  33. 1652. How did stock market regulations and deposit insurance benefit families with savings during the New Deal?
    provide a sense of security (USSRG:83,2,2)
  34. 1653. New Deal home loan program’s effect on home ownership
    an increase (USSRG:83,2,2)
  35. 1654. one of the most defining characteristics of middle‐class life in the United States
    home ownership (USSRG:83,2,2)
  36. 1655. the largest beneficiary of the New Deal
    the enlarged middle class (USSRG:83,2,2)
  37. 1656. the most important legacy of the New Deal
    an enlarged middle class (USSRG:83,2,2)
  38. 1657. demographic that most consistently voted Democratic following the New Deal
    African Americans (USSRG:83,2,2)
  39. 1658. head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1941
    A. Philip Randolph (USSRG:84,1,0)
  40. 1659. With what action did A. Philip Randolph threaten Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941?
    a march on Washington D.C. (USSRG:84,1,0)
  41. 1660. racial composition of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
    African‐American (USSRG:84,1,0)
  42. 1661. two reasons why A. Philip Randolph threatened to march on Washington D.C. in 1941
    segregation in the military and discrimination in war industries (USSRG:84,1,0)
  43. 1662. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to A. Philip Randolph’s threat to march on Washington D.C. in 1941
    Fair Employment Practices Commission (USSRG:84,1,0)
  44. 1663. Fair Employment Practices Commission
    agency that established the federal government’s role in preventing workplace discrimination (USSRG:84,1,0)
  45. 1664. United States political party most supportive of equal rights for all races in 1941
    Democratic Party (USSRG:84,1,0)
  46. 1665. four New Dealers who advocated racial equality
    Eleanor Roosevelt, Harry Hopkins, Mary McLeod Bethune, and John Collier (USSRG:84,1,0)
  47. 1666. Whom did the New Deal seek to make families’ chief breadwinners?
    men (USSRG:84,1,1)
  48. 1667. labor force participation rate of African American women relative to that of white women during the New Deal
    higher for African American women (USSRG:84,1,1)
  49. 1668. How did the female labor force participation rate change during the 1930s?
    increased (USSRG:84,2,0)
  50. 1669. Why did the female labor force participation rate increase during the 1930s?
    families needed extra money (USSRG:84,2,0)
  51. 1670. Whom did New Dealers generally think the Great Depression most affected?
    men (USSRG:84,2,1)
  52. 1671. New Deal program that catered exclusively to men
    Civilian Conservation Corps (USSRG:84,2,1)
  53. 1672. Why did World War II temporarily alter family income structures in the United States?
    subjected men to the draft (USSRG:85,1,1)
  54. 1673. What United States government program can be considered its quintessential gendered welfare program?
    G. I. Bill (USSRG:85,1,1)
  55. 1674. full name of the AFDC
    Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (USSRG:85,1,2)
  56. 1675. system of which the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program was part
    social security (USSRG:85,1,2)
  57. 1676. the most significant demographic shift in the 20th century United States
    migration of poor African Americans from the South to northern cities (USSRG:85,1,2)
  58. 1677. New Deal program accelerating the northwards migration of poor African Americans by displacing sharecroppers
    the Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:85,1,2)
  59. 1678. Which New Deal program’s regional inequalities encouraged the northwards migration of poor African Americans?
    Social Security (USSRG:85,1,2)
  60. 1679. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson expanded funding for the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program
    1965 (USSRG:85,1,3)
  61. 1680. President of the United States in 1965
    Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:85,1,3)
  62. 1681. Which United States government program became vital to single‐parent households in the 1960s?
    Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (USSRG:85,1,3)
  63. 1682. What effect did conservative critics of the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program claim the New Deal had?
    degraded family values and hard work (USSRG:85,1,3)
  64. 1683. decade in which the American civil rights struggle of the 1960s first began
    1930s (USSRG:85,1,4)
  65. 1684. academic focus of the 1930s that discredited “scientific racism”
    the effects of environment on behavior (USSRG:85,1,4)
  66. 1685. Which demographic group increasingly won important cases before the Supreme Court after the 1930s?
    African Americans (USSRG:85,2,0)
  67. 1686. date on which Franklin D. Roosevelt died
    April 12, 1945 (USSRG:85,2,1)
  68. 1687. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s vice president
    Harry S. Truman (USSRG:85,2,1)
  69. 1688. law that Harry S. Truman vetoed unsuccessfully in 1946
    Taft‐Hartley Act (USSRG:85,2,1)
  70. 1689. year in which a wave of strikes angered Harry S. Truman
    1946 (USSRG:85,2,1)
  71. 1690. Who won the presidential election of 1948?
    Harry S. Truman (USSRG:85,2,1)
  72. 1691. primary beneficiaries of Harry S. Truman’s expansion of the New Deal’s reach
    African Americans (USSRG:85,2,1)
  73. 1692. Harry S. Truman’s legislative program to extend New Deal benefits to African Americans
    the Fair Deal (USSRG:86,1,1)
  74. 1693. From whom did the Fair Deal encounter congressional resistance?
    Republicans (USSRG:86,1,1)
  75. 1694. Presidential Civil Rights Commission
    agency created by Harry S. Truman in 1946 to expand African Americans’ rights (USSRG:86,1,1)
  76. 1695. year in which Harry S. Truman desegregated the military
    1948 (USSRG:86,1,1)
  77. 1696. method that Harry S. Truman used to desegregate the military in 1948
    executive order (USSRG:86,1,1)
  78. 1697. year in which Shelley v. Kramer was decided
    1948 (USSRG:86,1,1)
  79. 1698. Supreme Court ruling in Shelley v. Kramer
    Racially discriminatory housing agreements could not be enforced. (USSRG:86,1,1)
  80. 1699. How did Harry S. Truman’s Justice Department aid the civil rights cause in Shelley v. Kramer?
    filed a brief with the Supreme Court supporting the cause (USSRG:86,1,1)
  81. 1700. type of brief filed by Harry S. Truman’s Justice Department in Brown v. Board of Education
    amicus curiae (USSRG:86,1,1)
  82. 1701. national effect of Brown v. Board of Education
    end of segregation in schools (USSRG:86,1,1)
  83. 1702. two reasons Harry S. Truman supported the civil rights cause
    morals and concern about foreign views of the United States (USSRG:86,1,2)
  84. 1703. With which contemporary event could the early 1900s’ segregation of African Americans in the American South be compared?
    Nazis’ treatment of Jews (USSRG:86,1,2)
  85. 1704. global post‐World War II trend that led to the formation of many new nations
    decolonization (USSRG:86,1,2)
  86. 1705. form of segregation in the American Northeast and West during the Truman administration
    informal (USSRG:86,1,2)
  87. 1706. region of the United States where blacks were restricted from voting in the first half of the 20th century
    South (USSRG:86,1,2)
  88. 1707. the party of white supremacy in the American South prior to World War II
    Democratic Party (USSRG:86,2,1)
  89. 1708. How did Dixiecrats react to Harry S. Truman’s civil rights measures?
    with protests (USSRG:86,2,1)
  90. 1709. two laws Lyndon B. Johnson signed that pushed Dixiecrats toward the Republican Party
    Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act (USSRG:86,2,1)
  91. 1710. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act
    1964 (USSRG:86,2,1)
  92. 1711. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act
    1965 (USSRG:86,2,1)
  93. 1712. the first sizable group to break away from the New Deal coalition
    white southern Democrats (USSRG:86,2,1)
  94. 1713. Which part of the New Deal can be considered ‘discrimination by design’?
    intentional exclusion of many African Americans from the original Social Security program (USSRG:86,2,2)
  95. 1714. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt have to exclude many African Americans from the original Social Security program?
    to appease southern white Democrats (USSRG:86,2,2)
  96. 1715. percentage of African Americans ineligible for the original Social Security program
    65% (USSRG:86,2,2)
  97. 1716. number of African Americans eligible for Social Security’s retirement benefits in 1940
    2,300,000 (USSRG:86,2,3)
  98. 1717. number of workers newly eligible for Social Security after Harry S. Truman’s reforms
    10,000,000 (USSRG:86,2,3)
  99. 1718. percentage by which Harry S. Truman increased Social Security benefits
    75% (USSRG:86,2,3)
  100. 1719. Why did Dwight D. Eisenhower not cut Social Security?
    did not want to engender the wrath of the program’s supporters (USSRG:86,2,3)
  101. 1720. the most popular entitlement program in the United States in 1953
    Social Security (USSRG:86,2,3)
  102. 1721. Harry S. Truman’s successor as President
    Dwight D. Eisenhower (USSRG:86,2,3)
  103. 1722. extension to Social Security under Dwight D. Eisenhower
    full, permanent disability coverage for Americans over 50 (USSRG:86,2,3)
  104. 1723. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson increased Social Security benefits considerably
    1965 (USSRG:86,2,3)
  105. 1724. improvement to Social Security in the 1970s under Jimmy Carter
    cost‐of‐living adjustments (USSRG:86,2,3)
  106. 1725. two new tools of governance with which New Dealers entered World War II
    regulation and fiscal management (USSRG:86,2,4)
  107. 1726. How did Keynesians propose to level the ups and downs of the business cycle?
    countercyclical government fiscal policy (USSRG:87,1,0)
  108. 1727. Whose intellectual tradition did regulators in World War II‐era United States follow?
    progressive reformers around 1900 (USSRG:87,1,0)
  109. 1728. How did regulators in World War II‐era United States seek to cure social and economic inequalities?
    legislating the unpredictable behavior of the marketplace (USSRG:87,1,0)
  110. 1729. How did Keynesians seek to cure social and economic inequalities?
    through growth (USSRG:87,1,0)
  111. 1730. three industries for which the Interstate Commerce Commission was created
    railroads, trucking, and water carriers (USSRG:87,1,1)
  112. 1731. industry for which the Federal Reserve was created
    banking (USSRG:87,1,1)
  113. 1732. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    agency created after World War II to address problems in a broad range of industries (USSRG:87,1,2)
  114. 1733. full name of the OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USSRG:87,1,2)
  115. 1734. the most significant regulation passed in the United States since World War II
    various laws designed to protect consumers from flawed goods (USSRG:87,1,2)
  116. 1735. time from which the earliest precedent of consumer protection laws dates in the United States
    early 1800s (USSRG:87,1,2)
  117. 1736. New Deal principle on which the concept of consumer protection relies
    the government’s responsibility to intervene in case of market failure (USSRG:87,1,2)
  118. 1737. event after which most consumer protection legislation was passed in the United States
    World War II (USSRG:87,1,2)
  119. 1738. law that the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment changed
    Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (USSRG:87,1,3)
  120. 1739. change that the Kefauver‐Harris Amendment made to the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
    required more thorough testing of new drugs (USSRG:87,1,3)
  121. 1740. event that prompted the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment
    increase in birth defects (USSRG:87,1,3)
  122. 1741. drug responsible for the increase in birth defects that prompted the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment
    thalidomide (USSRG:87,1,3)
  123. 1742. What public sentiment prompted the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966?
    distrust of the market’s ability to find a socially optimal solution (USSRG:87,1,3)
  124. 1743. two regulations imposed by the 1966 National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
    safety standards for motor vehicles and their parts, and recalls in case of their violation (USSRG:87,1,3)
  125. 1744. the most diverse workplaces in the world during World War II
    United States defense industries (USSRG:87,2,1)
  126. 1745. Whose theories gained support through the broad participation in the American economic recovery from the Great Depression?
    John Maynard Keynes (USSRG:87,2,1)
  127. 1746. two government actions John Maynard Keynes believed would restore full employment following a recession
    countercyclical spending on public works and measures to increase private investment (USSRG:87,2,1)
  128. 1747. two of prominent Keynesians during the New Deal
    Alvin Hansen and Paul Samuelson (USSRG:87,2,1)
  129. 1748. How could a government avoid inflation after full employment was reached, according to Alvin Hansen and Paul Samuelson?
    cutting spending or increasing taxes (USSRG:87,2,1)
  130. 1749. the richest country in the world after World War II
    the United States (USSRG:87,2,2)
  131. 1750. How long did United States recessions between 1945 and the mid‐1970s typically last?
    a year or less (USSRG:87,2,3)
  132. 1751. How many times higher was United States manufacturing production in 1965 than in 1945?
    2 times (USSRG:87,2,3)
  133. 1752. How many times higher was United States manufacturing production in 1976 than in 1945?
    3 times (USSRG:87,2,3)
  134. 1753. In which aspect of the American economy did the New Deal have little legacy?
    international economics (USSRG:87,2,4)
  135. 1754. two ways in which Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted international stability as President
    signing the Atlantic charter and supporting the United Nations (USSRG:87,2,4)
  136. 1755. three organizations created to foster a fair and profitable international trade system
    World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,1,0)
  137. 1756. full name of the IMF
    International Monetary Fund (USSRG:88,1,0)
  138. 1757. full name of the GATT
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,1,0)
  139. 1758. Bretton Woods
    economic conference of the Allied nations (USSRG:88,1,1)
  140. 1759. year in which Bretton Woods took place
    1944 (USSRG:88,1,1)
  141. 1760. state in which Bretton Woods took place
    New Hampshire (USSRG:88,1,1)
  142. 1761. currency established as the principal currency of the world market system at Bretton Woods
    United States Dollar (USSRG:88,1,1)
  143. 1762. year in which the Bretton Woods international monetary system ended
    1973 (USSRG:88,1,1)
  144. 1763. commodity to which the United State dollar was pegged under the Bretton Woods system
    gold (USSRG:88,2,0)
  145. 1764. assumption made by the Bretton Woods international monetary system
    United States dollars were desirable globally. (USSRG:88,2,0)
  146. 1765. year in which Germany and Japan began to amass significant dollar reserves
    1965 (USSRG:88,2,1)
  147. 1766. Why did Germany and Japan begin to amass significant dollar reserves in 1965?
    trade surplus with the United States (USSRG:88,2,1)
  148. 1767. two aspects of the American economy that lessened the appeal of the Bretton Woods system internationally from 1966 to 1970
    inflation and trade deficits (USSRG:88,2,1)
  149. 1768. practice ultimately responsible for the United States’ acceptance of floating exchange rates in 1973
    speculation against the United States dollar (USSRG:88,2,1)
  150. 1769. Why did investors speculate against the United States dollar in the early 1970s?
    was thought to be overvalued (USSRG:88,2,1)
  151. 1770. system which replaced the Bretton Woods agreement
    floating exchange rates (USSRG:88,2,1)
  152. 1771. organization created at Bretton Woods to make loans to war‐ravaged European countries and developing nations
    World Bank (USSRG:88,2,2)
  153. 1772. official name of the World Bank
    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (USSRG:88,2,2)
  154. 1773. official name of the Marshall Plan
    European Recovery Program (USSRG:88,2,2)
  155. 1774. How much money did the Marshall Plan distribute in Europe?
    $13,000,000,000 (USSRG:88,2,2)
  156. 1775. years during which the Marshall Plan operated
    from 1948 to 1952 (USSRG:88,2,2)
  157. 1776. number of European countries receiving money from the Marshall Plan
    16 (USSRG:88,2,2)
  158. 1777. domestic policy that the Marshall Plan replicated on an international scale
    New Deal (USSRG:88,2,2)
  159. 1778. two advantages secured by the United States through the Marshall Plan
    assured allegiance of European countries to the United States and created American export markets (USSRG:88,2,2)
  160. 1779. proposed post‐World war II organization to reduce barriers to trade among its members
    International Trade Organization (USSRG:88,2,3)
  161. 1780. full name of the ITO
    International Trade Organization (USSRG:88,2,3)
  162. 1781. weaker alliance created instead of the International Trade Organization
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,2,3)
  163. 1782. meeting out of which the International Monetary Fund emerged
    Bretton Woods (USSRG:89,1,1)
  164. 1783. aspect of the International Monetary Fund John Maynard Keynes and United States negotiators disagreed over
    how to distribute the burden of keeping the global economy stable (USSRG:89,1,1)
  165. 1784. five functions of the International Monetary Fund
    expand global trade, stabilize exchange rates, lower trade barriers, establish multilateral payment systems, and aid deeply indebted countries (USSRG:89,1,1)
  166. 1785. In what TWO ways would the International Monetary Fund reduce countries’ international deficits?
    financial assistance and strong policy recommendations (USSRG:89,1,1)
  167. 1786. country that often set conditions for countries to qualify for International Monetary Fund loans
    the United States (USSRG:89,1,2)
  168. 1787. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms
    freedom of speech and religion; freedom from fear and want (USSRG:89,1,4)
  169. 1788. conflict waged to secure the Four Freedoms, according to Franklin D. Roosevelt
    World War II (USSRG:89,1,4)
  170. 1789. What kind of security did freedom of speech and religion provide?
    national security (USSRG:89,2,0)
  171. 1790. What kind of security did freedom from fear and want provide?
    social security (USSRG:89,2,0)
  172. 1791. the most famous vehicle of World War II
    Jeep (USSRG:89,2,1)
  173. 1792. two effects of the spike in American demand after World War II
    rising prices and rapid conversion from military to peacetime production (USSRG:89,2,1)
  174. 1793. Why did Americans begin to save more during World War II?
    The war made them suspend their future plans. (USSRG:89,2,1)
  175. 1794. committee created by Franklin D. Roosevelt that recommended generous benefits for World War II veterans
    Postwar Manpower Committee (USSRG:89,2,2)
  176. 1795. policy suggested by the Postwar Manpower Committee to keep World War II veterans from going straight to bread lines
    large benefits packages (USSRG:89,2,2)
  177. 1796. total federal spending on American veterans’ benefits from 1944 to 1971
    $95,000,000,000 (USSRG:90,1,0)
  178. 1797. percentage of the American federal budget dedicated to the G.I. Bill in 1948
    15% (USSRG:90,1,0)
  179. 1798. percentage of the American federal workforce working in the Veterans Administration in 1948
    18% (USSRG:90,1,0)
  180. 1799. full name of the VA
    Veterans Administration (USSRG:90,1,0)
  181. 1800. law stipulating large benefits packages for World War II veterans
    Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (USSRG:90,1,0)
  182. 1801. Employment Act of 1946
    law requiring the federal government to sustain maximum production, employment, and purchasing power (USSRG:90,1,1)
  183. 1802. Whom did the Employment Act of 1946 favor in its regulation of price levels relative to wages?
    workers (USSRG:90,1,1)
  184. 1803. How did Social Security support private consumption during periods of high unemployment?
    transfer payments (USSRG:90,1,1)
  185. 1804. Whom did the Employment Act of 1946 make the country’s chief macroeconomic architect?
    the president (USSRG:90,1,1)
  186. 1805. first president to take on a role as the United States’ chief macroeconomic architect
    Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:90,1,1)
  187. 1806. full name of the CEA
    Council of Economic Advisors (USSRG:90,1,2)
  188. 1807. law that created the Council of Economic Advisors
    Employment Act of 1946 (USSRG:90,1,2)
  189. 1808. first chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors
    Edwin Nourse (USSRG:90,1,2)
  190. 1809. Edwin Nourse’s ideological orientation
    conservative (USSRG:90,1,2)
  191. 1810. Why did Harry S. Truman appoint Edwin Nourse as first chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors?
    to ease the fears of businessmen and Republicans (USSRG:90,1,2)
  192. 1811. man appointed to the first Council of Economic Advisors to represent labor’s interests
    Leon Keyserling (USSRG:90,1,2)
  193. 1812. nature of the government’s role in economics, according to Edwin Nourse
    scientific (USSRG:90,1,2)
  194. 1813. nature of the government’s role in economics, according to Leon Keyserling
    political (USSRG:90,1,2)
  195. 1814. By what percentage did Gross National Product fall during the first post‐World War II American recession?
    4% (USSRG:90,2,1)
  196. 1815. How did Harry S. Truman react to the first post‐World War II American recession?
    gave military contracts to economically distressed areas (USSRG:90,2,1)
  197. 1816. level above which the American unemployment rate briefly rose during the first post‐World War II recession
    5% (USSRG:90,2,1)
  198. 1817. John F. Kennedy’s boldest use of Keynesian economic policy
    Tax Reduction Act of 1964 (USSRG:90,2,2)
  199. 1818. president of the United States when the Tax Reduction Act of 1964 was passed
    Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:90,2,2)
  200. 1819. John F. Kennedy’s successor
    Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:90,2,2)
  201. 1820. month in which the Tax Reduction Act of 1964 was passed
    February (USSRG:90,2,2)
  202. 1821. two actions stipulated by the Tax Reduction Act of 1964
    increase spending and decrease taxes (USSRG:90,2,2)
  203. 1822. the United States’ paramount economic question in 1932
    the labor question (USSRG:90,2,3)
  204. 1823. prospective political party whose chances of forming diminished during the New Deal
    Labor Party (USSRG:91,1,1)
  205. 1824. act of Congress that first subjected unions to federal legislation
    Wagner Act (USSRG:91,1,1)
  206. 1825. two main objectives of unions during the New Deal
    full employment and high wages (USSRG:91,1,1)
  207. 1826. the United States’ response to the labor question after World War II
    concept of an American Standard of Living (USSRG:91,1,1)
  208. 1827. political trend that caused union leaders to push for private pensions and healthcare after World War II
    increasing election of Republicans to Congress (USSRG:91,1,2)
  209. 1828. How many times higher was union membership in the United States in 1945 than in 1933?
    five times higher (USSRG:91,1,3)
  210. 1829. number of unionized workers in the United States in 1945
    14,000,000 (USSRG:91,1,3)
  211. 1830. percentage of American workers unionized in 1945
    30% (USSRG:91,1,3)
  212. 1831. Why did American wages grow more slowly than prices after World War II?
    the end of wartime price ceilings (USSRG:91,2,0)
  213. 1832. company against which the United Autoworkers went on strike in 1946
    General Motors (USSRG:91,2,1)
  214. 1833. How many workers went on strike in 1946?
    about 5,000,000 (USSRG:91,2,1)
  215. 1834. How many work/man days were lost as a result of strikes in 1946?
    107,460,000 (USSRG:91,2,1)
  216. 1835. two types of workplaces in which strikes took place in 1946
    mines and factories (USSRG:91,2,1)
  217. 1836. percentage increase in wages demanded by striking United Auto Workers in 1946
    30% (USSRG:91,2,1)
  218. 1837. Why did striking United Auto Workers demand a 30% increase in wages in 1946?
    so that General Motors workers could buy the cars they made (USSRG:91,2,1)
  219. 1838. percentage increase in wages received by striking United Auto Workers in 1946
    18.5% (USSRG:91,2,1)
  220. 1839. What aim did the 1946 United Auto Workers strike fail to fulfill?
    getting General Motors to open its books (USSRG:91,2,1)
  221. 1840. political party that dominated 1946 congressional elections
    Republican Party (USSRG:91,2,2)
  222. 1841. law also known as the Labor‐Management Relations Act
    Taft‐Hartley Act (USSRG:91,2,2)
  223. 1842. three provisions of the Taft‐Hartley Act
    restricted solidarity strikes, let states ban union‐only workplaces, and forbade Communists in unions (USSRG:91,2,2)
  224. 1843. full name of COLA
    cost of living adjustment (USSRG:92,1,1)
  225. 1844. full name of AIF
    annual improvement factor (USSRG:92,1,1)
  226. 1845. year in which the Treaty of Detroit was agreed upon
    1950 (USSRG:92,1,1)
  227. 1846. two parties to the 1950 Treaty of Detroit
    General Motors and the United Autoworkers (USSRG:92,1,1)
  228. 1847. full name of GM
    General Motors (USSRG:92,1,1)
  229. 1848. percentage of labor contracts including cost‐of‐living adjustments and annual improvement factors in 1960
    50% (USSRG:92,1,1)
  230. 1849. the principal focus of contract negotiation in 1960
    graduated increases in wages (USSRG:92,1,1)
  231. 1850. year in which the American Federation of Labor and Committee for Industrial Organization merged
    1955 (USSRG:92,1,1)
  232. 1851. How long after the American Federation of Labor‐Committee for Industrial Organization split did the two remerge?
    20 years (USSRG:92,1,1)
  233. 1852. primary source of social and political change in the 1960s United States
    civil rights activists (USSRG:92,1,1)
  234. 1853. two factors that contributed to the growth of the American middle class after World War II
    governmentʹs commitment to welfare and international political circumstances (USSRG:92,1,3)
  235. 1854. American industry in which prospects for personal advancement were high during and after World War II
    military industries (USSRG:92,1,3)
  236. 1855. number of World War II veterans who bought farms or started businesses using G.I. Bill money
    200,000 (USSRG:92,2,1)
  237. 1856. demographic in the military industries most likely to enter the American middle class during and after World War II
    whites (USSRG:92,2,1)
  238. 1857. two factors contributing to the increase in American consumer goods available during the Cold War
    cheap raw materials from abroad and new production techniques (USSRG:92,2,2)
  239. 1858. three factors contributing to increasing American wages during the Cold War
    social security, secure union wages, and veterans’ benefits (USSRG:92,2,2)
  240. 1859. most important factor in the American consumers’ republic of the Cold War era
    expansion of home ownership (USSRG:92,2,3)
  241. 1860. three federal programs that helped expand home ownership after World War II
    Home Owners Loan Corporation, Veterans Administration, and Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:92,2,3)
  242. 1861. 1862 law to which the G.I. Bill’s effect on home ownership was compared
    Homestead Act (USSRG:92,2,3)
  243. 1862. Which historian first compared the G.I. Bill’s effect on home ownership with the Homestead Act?
    Michael Bennet (USSRG:92,2,3)
  244. 1863. Michael Bennet’s profession
    historian (USSRG:92,2,3)
  245. 1864. How many World War II veterans purchased homes under the G.I. Bill?
    60,000,000 (USSRG:92,2,4)
  246. 1865. How did the Federal Housing Administration encourage banks to make home loans?
    insuring them against losses (USSRG:92,2,4)
  247. 1866. How many families purchased houses under the Federal Housing Administration between 1945 and 1972?
    11,000,000 (USSRG:92,2,4)
  248. 1867. How many families upgraded their properties under the Federal Housing Administration between 1945 and 1972?
    22,000,000 (USSRG:92,2,4)
  249. 1868. number of condominiums and apartments insured by the Federal Housing Administration
    1,800,000 (USSRG:92,2,4)
  250. 1869. 1945 United States home ownership rate
    44% (USSRG:92,2,4)
  251. 1870. 1972 United States home ownership rate
    63% (USSRG:92,2,4)
  252. 1871. number of new homes built in the United States between 1944 and 1954
    13,000,000 (USSRG:92,2,4)
  253. 1872. Levitt and Sons
    building company that used mass production techniques during World War II (USSRG:92,2,5)
  254. 1873. For whom did Levitt and Sons build housing during World War II?
    war workers (USSRG:92,2,5)
  255. 1874. town created by Levitt and Sons after World War II
    Levittown, New York (USSRG:92,2,5)
  256. 1875. baby boom
    increase in birth rate following World War II (USSRG:93,1,0)
  257. 1876. cause of the baby boom
    political and economic circumstances (USSRG:93,1,0)
  258. 1877. For how long after World War II did most Americans marry early and have large families?
    20 years (USSRG:93,1,0)
  259. 1878. percentage of Americans with at least one year of college living outside their home state after World War II
    45% (USSRG:93,2,1)
  260. 1879. percentage of Americans with a high school diploma living outside their home state after World War II
    27.3% (USSRG:93,2,1)
  261. 1880. primary loyalty of Americans after the Cold War
    loyalty to the nuclear family (USSRG:93,2,0)
  262. 1881. number of American college graduates at the beginning of World War II
    160,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  263. 1882. number of American college graduates in 1950
    500,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  264. 1883. year in which the G.I. Bill had the greatest impact
    1947 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  265. 1884. number of American veterans enrolled in college in 1947
    1,800,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  266. 1885. percentage of American college students that were veterans in 1947
    70% (USSRG:93,2,2)
  267. 1886. legislation responsible for creating today’s “black bourgeoisie”
    G.I. Bill (USSRG:93,2,2)
  268. 1887. number of American engineers schooled under the G.I. Bill
    400,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  269. 1888. number of American teachers schooled under the G.I. Bill
    200,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  270. 1889. number of American scientists schooled under the G.I. Bill
    90,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  271. 1890. number of American doctors and dentists schooled under the G.I. Bill
    82,000 (USSRG:93,2,2)
  272. 1891. Why did New Dealers postpone their healthcare proposals in the 1930s?
    anticipated political obstacles (USSRG:93,2,3)
  273. 1892. majority party in Congress after the 1948 elections
    Democratic Party (USSRG:93,2,3)
  274. 1893. full name of the AMA
    American Medical Association (USSRG:93,2,3)
  275. 1894. organization that campaigned against Harry S. Truman’s national health insurance program
    American Medical Association (USSRG:93,2,3)
  276. 1895. percentage of the average retired American’s income supplied by Social Security during the Fair Deal
    30% (USSRG:93,2,3)
  277. 1896. fraction of the under‐65 workforce covered by private health insurance in the 1960s
    two‐thirds (USSRG:94,1,1)
  278. 1897. organizations that helped American workers obtain private health insurance during the Cold War
    unions (USSRG:94,1,1)
  279. 1898. post‐World War II decade in which unionized manufacturing industries declined
    1970s (USSRG:94,1,1)
  280. 1899. peak number of unionized workers receiving employer health insurance in the United States
    40,000,000 (USSRG:94,1,1)
  281. 1900. peak percentage of private health insurance paid for by employers in the United States
    70% (USSRG:94,1,1)
  282. 1901. year in which John F. Kennedy promised to reform healthcare for the elderly
    1960 (USSRG:94,1,2)
  283. 1902. Lyndon B. Johnson’s reform program that included healthcare reform
    Great Society (USSRG:94,1,2)
  284. 1903. healthcare program for the elderly begun under Lyndon B. Johnson
    Medicare (USSRG:94,1,2)
  285. 1904. healthcare program for the poor begun under Lyndon B. Johnson
    Medicaid (USSRG:94,1,2)
  286. 1905. Why did non‐unionized companies offer their employees pensions during and after the New Deal?
    to prevent unionization (USSRG:94,1,3)
  287. 1906. percentage of American workers in pension programs in 1945
    19% (USSRG:94,1,3)
  288. 1907. percentage of American workers in pension programs in 1970
    45% (USSRG:94,1,3)
  289. 1908. first year in which pensions were a point of conflict in collective bargaining in the United States
    1980 (USSRG:94,1,3)
  290. 1909. pension
    amassing of savings for long‐term investment (USSRG:94,1,4)
  291. 1910. fraction of all American stock market transactions carried out by mutual funds in the 1960s
    one‐fourth (USSRG:94,2,0)
  292. 1911. number of mutual funds in 1982 in the United States
    340 (USSRG:94,2,0)
  293. 1912. number of mutual funds in 1998 in the United States
    over 3500 (USSRG:94,2,0)
  294. 1913. United States law regulating retirement plans
    Employee Retirement Income Security Act (USSRG:94,2,1)
  295. 1914. year in which the Employee Retirement Income Security Act was passed
    1974 (USSRG:94,2,1)
  296. 1915. financial innovation that allowed American workers to choose the risk level of their retirement plan
    401(k) (USSRG:94,2,1)
  297. 1916. percentage of American families owning stock in 1960
    10% (USSRG:94,2,1)
  298. 1917. percentage of American families owning stock in 2000
    over 50% (USSRG:94,2,1)
  299. 1918. percentage of United States wealth held as stock in 2000
    over 25% (USSRG:94,2,1)
  300. 1919. Charles Merrill
    founder of Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith (USSRG:94,2,2)
  301. 1920. How did Charles Merrill eliminate self‐interest amongst his sales staff?
    by eliminating commissions (USSRG:94,2,2)
  302. 1921. Merrill Lynch’s slogan
    “own your share of America” (USSRG:94,2,2)
  303. 1922. United States company that promoted “people’s capitalism” in the 1950s
    Merrill Lynch (USSRG:94,2,2)
  304. 1923. financially‐themed board game released in the 1950s
    The World of Wall Street (USSRG:94,2,3)
  305. 1924. How did the percentage of stock‐holding Americans after World War II compare to that of other first‐world countries?
    three to four times higher (USSRG:94,2,3)
  306. 1925. two banking practices that helped achieve a long period of stability for banks after World War II
    conservative investment and high reserve ratios (USSRG:95,1,1)
  307. 1926. type of account on which New Deal regulations prohibited interest
    commercial checking accounts (USSRG:95,1,1)
  308. 1927. full name of Fannie Mae
    Federal National Mortgage Association (USSRG:95,1,1)
  309. 1928. specialty of Fannie Mae
    housing loans (USSRG:95,1,1)
  310. 1929. the 3‐6‐3 rule’s suggested deposit interest rate
    3% (USSRG:95,1,1)
  311. 1930. the 3‐6‐3 rule’s suggested mortgage interest rate
    6% (USSRG:95,1,1)
  312. 1931. time by which bankers should arrive at the golf course, according to the 3‐6‐3 rule
    3:00 p.m. (USSRG:95,1,1)
  313. 1932. sector of the American economy thought to be perfectly competitive during the 19th century
    agriculture (USSRG:95,2,0)
  314. 1933. two factors contributing to hardship amongst American farmers beginning in the 1880s
    expanding supply and declining prices (USSRG:95,2,0)
  315. 1934. year in which Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Second Agricultural Adjustment Act was passed
    1938 (USSRG:95,2,1)
  316. 1935. goal of the Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
    to restore full agricultural production (USSRG:95,2,1)
  317. 1936. event that erased the problem of surplus in American agriculture
    World War II (USSRG:95,2,1)
  318. 1937. year in which American agricultural overproduction first resurfaced as a problem after World War II
    1948 (USSRG:95,2,2)
  319. 1938. Dwight D. Eisenhower’s party
    Republican Party (USSRG:95,2,2)
  320. 1939. two groups for which Dwight D. Eisenhower allowed food prices to vary as president
    urban consumers and free‐market conservatives (USSRG:95,2,2)
  321. 1940. year in which the Soil Bank Act was passed
    1956 (USSRG:95,2,3)
  322. 1941. To whom did the Soil Bank Act of 1956 give federal subsidies?
    farmers who took land out of production (USSRG:95,2,3)
  323. 1942. program in which the Soil Bank Act of 1956 was rooted
    soil conservation program during the Dust Bowl (USSRG:95,2,3)
  324. 1943. 1961 United States law that offered subsidies for taking land out of production
    Emergency Feed Grain Bill (USSRG:95,2,3)
  325. 1944. 1965 United States law that offered subsidies for taking land out of production
    Food and Agriculture Act (USSRG:95,2,3)
  326. 1945. How did American farmers compensate for the loss in productive acreage caused by subsidies?
    aggressively cultivating their land still in production (USSRG:95,2,3)
  327. 1946. cause of the decline of agriculture in the American economy
    industrial expansion (USSRG:96,1,1)
  328. 1947. When did the decline of agriculture in the American economy begin?
    early 19th century (USSRG:96,1,1)
  329. 1948. How did increases in real income affect spending on food in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s?
    made food a smaller portion of expenditures (USSRG:96,1,1)
  330. 1949. In what TWO ways did the use of workers in agriculture change in as technology improved?
    became less necessary and more expensive (USSRG:96,1,2)
  331. 1950. technique that decreased sharecroppers’ competitiveness in the American South
    chemical defoliation of cotton plants (USSRG:96,1,2)
  332. 1951. advance in tomato production that allowed mechanical harvesting
    tougher skin (USSRG:96,1,2)
  333. 1952. three American groups that expedited technological improvements in agriculture after World War II
    Department of Agriculture, state agencies, and college research facilities (USSRG:96,1,2)
  334. 1953. United States government agency with the biggest effect on the American people over the last 50 years
    Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:96,1,3)
  335. 1954. How did the Federal Housing Administration’s refusal to insure red‐lined districts affect those areas?
    expedited their decay (USSRG:96,2,0)
  336. 1955. How many times more mortgage insurance did St. Louis suburbs receive than the city itself between 1933 and 1960?
    5 times (USSRG:96,2,0)
  337. 1956. number of buildings demolished in American urban renewal plans between 1949 and 1967
    400,000 (USSRG:96,2,1)
  338. 1957. number of people displaced in American urban renewal plans between 1949 and 1967
    1,400,000 (USSRG:96,2,1)
  339. 1958. How did American politicians and city planners react to the decay of urban areas after World War II?
    with urban renewal programs (USSRG:96,2,1)
  340. 1959. the biggest beneficiaries of the New Deal
    white working‐ and middle‐class men and their families (USSRG:96,2,2)
  341. 1960. United States president who began the war on poverty
    Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:96,2,2)
  342. 1961. year in which the Economic Opportunity Act was passed
    1964 (USSRG:96,2,2)
  343. 1962. law that contained most of Lyndon B. Johnson’s anti‐poverty programs
    Economic Opportunity Act (USSRG:96,2,2)
  344. 1963. three provisions of the Economic Opportunity Act
    opened training camps, gave grants to small farmers and businesses, and supported local anti‐poverty programs (USSRG:96,2,2)
  345. 1964. effect of the Economic Opportunity Act on the New Deal coalition
    caused former allies to leave the coalition (USSRG:96,2,2)
  346. 1965. side‐effect of over‐employment according to Keynes
    inflation (USSRG:97,1,0)
  347. 1966. conflict whose cost increased shortly after John F. Kennedy’s tax cut
    Vietnam War (USSRG:97,1,1)
  348. 1967. chair of the Council of Economic Advisers under Lyndon B. Johnson
    Walter Heller (USSRG:97,1,1)
  349. 1968. full name of OPEC
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (USSRG:97,2,0)
  350. 1969. year in which the Yom Kippur War took place
    1973 (USSRG:97,2,0)
  351. 1970. stagflation
    simultaneous inflation and economic stagnation (USSRG:97,2,0)
  352. 1971. four possible reasons for the American stagflation in the 1970s
    rising oil prices, declining industrial competitiveness, cost of the Vietnam War, and cost of the war on poverty (USSRG:97,2,1)
  353. 1972. group that believed special interest groups were taking jobs and money from mainstream Americans in the 1970s
    Silent Majority (USSRG:97,2,1)
  354. 1973. taxpayer revolts
    demonstrations by those who believed that minorities controlled the government and wanted small government during the 1970s (USSRG:97,2,1)
  355. 1974. poster child of American industrial dominance after World War II
    automobile industry (USSRG:97,2,2)
  356. 1975. three factors in the decline of American dominance in the automobile industry during the 1970s
    German and Japanese competition, rising oil prices, and outsourcing to low‐wage labor sources (USSRG:97,2,2)
  357. 1976. Why did conservative politicians resist unionization in the Sunbelt after World War II?
    to keep the region competitive in the labor market (USSRG:98,1,0)
  358. 1977. Ronald Reagan’s successor as president
    George H. W. Bush (USSRG:98,1,1)
  359. 1978. economic approach favored by Ronald Reagan
    supply‐side economics (USSRG:98,1,2)
  360. 1979. Ronald Reagan’s chief economist
    Arthur Laffer (USSRG:98,1,2)
  361. 1980. Ronald Reagan’s 1981 tax cut legislation
    Economic Recovery Tax Act (USSRG:98,2,0)
  362. 1981. effect of Reagan’s economic policies on wealth distribution
    redistributed money from the poor to the rich (USSRG:98,2,0)
  363. 1982. problem states encountered in trying to regulate the economy on their own under Ronald Reagan
    insufficient budget (USSRG:98,2,1)
  364. 1983. policy that partially caused the Savings and Loan Crisis from 1986 to 1989
    elimination of geographic restrictions on investment firms (USSRG:98,2,1)
  365. 1984. full name of the FAA
    Federal Aviation Administration (USSRG:98,2,2)
  366. 1985. types of area in which financial services disappeared after the deregulation of banks under Ronald Reagan
    central urban areas (USSRG:99,1,0)
  367. 1986. shift of services once in the public domain to individual ownership
    privatization (USSRG:99,1,0)
  368. 1987. Why did the most recent attempt to privatize Social Security to lose steam?
    a series of corporate scandals (USSRG:99,1,3)
  369. 1988. two industries that triggered the recent first American depression since the Great Depression
    banking and mortgage industries (USSRG:99,2,0)
  370. 1989. generation whose members benefit from Social Security, making it politically difficult to dismantle
    Baby Boom generation (USSRG:99,1,3)
  371. 1990. first decade in which the ratio of Social Security beneficiaries to supporters strained the system
    1970s (USSRG:99,1,3)

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