social science section 3
Card Set Information
social science section 3
social science section
social science section 3
1620. two important international events that followed the New Deal
World War II and the Cold War (USSRG:82,1,1)
1621. How did World War II cause economic recovery?
through large government spending and job creation (USSRG:82,1,1)
1622. year by which the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps had been ended
1623. How did Democrats fare in the 1942 United States elections?
diminished their congressional majority (USSRG:82,1,1)
1624. Dr. Win‐the‐War
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s nickname for himself during World War II (USSRG:82,1,1)
1625. year in which Republicans began to dismantle New Deal agencies
1626. two agencies through which government spending was expanded during World War II
War Production Board and National Resources Planning Board (USSRG:82,1,2)
1627. Why was the United States economy able to grow more quickly than European economies during World War II?
was not attacked on the home front (USSRG:82,1,3)
1628. the only nation with the atomic bomb at the end of World War II
the United States (USSRG:82,2,0)
1629. Why did the United States possess worldwide military influence after World War II?
The war had spread its military all over the world. (USSRG:82,2,0)
1630. the United States’ ideological rival in the Cold War
the Soviet Union (USSRG:82,2,0)
1631. three types of competition between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War
economic, political, and military competition (USSRG:82,2,0)
1632. How were the millions of Cold War‐era United States veterans received upon their return?
given veterans’ benefits (USSRG:82,2,0)
1633. two ways in which the Cold War affected American unions
became conservative and purged suspected communists (USSRG:82,2,0)
1634. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s successor as president
Harry S. Truman (USSRG:83,1,1)
1635. How did the New Deal change the United States federal government?
expanded its institutions concerned with social and economic policy (USSRG:83,1,1)
1636. When did the New Deal end?
1637. With which policy did the New Deal end?
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s court‐packing plan (USSRG:83,1,2)
1638. only significant New Deal legislation passed after 1937
Fair Labor Standards Act (USSRG:83,1,2)
1639. Which political party lost seats in the election of 1938?
Democratic Party (USSRG:83,1,2)
1640. fraction of Americans that received aid from the federal government during the New Deal
1641. Which entity became responsible for defusing economic crises after the New Deal?
the federal government (USSRG:83,1,2)
1642. three distinct purposes of New Deal policies
relieve hardship, stimulate the economy, and prevent a recurrence of the conditions that had caused the Great Depression (USSRG:83,1,3)
1643. three New Deal programs that still impact Americans’ lives today
Social Security, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (USSRG:83,1,3)
1644. How did the New Deal affect the constituency of the Democratic Party?
increased it (USSRG:83,1,4)
1645. percentage of Americans on relief programs voting Democratic in 1936
1646. Why did unions ally with the Democrats after World War II?
had made unions a recognized force in the United States (USSRG:83,2,1)
1647. How did American immigrants increasingly begin to see themselves after World War II?
as normal white Americans (USSRG:83,2,1)
1648. hyphenated Americans
United States immigrants with their own distinct cultures (USSRG:83,2,1)
1649. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt address American immigrants?
as his peers (USSRG:83,2,1)
1650. only region in which the Democratic Party was “solid” prior to the New Deal
the South (USSRG:83,2,1)
1651. How did the Democratic Party appeal to the middle class during the New Deal?
with programs that helped families (USSRG:83,2,2)
1652. How did stock market regulations and deposit insurance benefit families with savings during the New Deal?
provide a sense of security (USSRG:83,2,2)
1653. New Deal home loan program’s effect on home ownership
an increase (USSRG:83,2,2)
1654. one of the most defining characteristics of middle‐class life in the United States
home ownership (USSRG:83,2,2)
1655. the largest beneficiary of the New Deal
the enlarged middle class (USSRG:83,2,2)
1656. the most important legacy of the New Deal
an enlarged middle class (USSRG:83,2,2)
1657. demographic that most consistently voted Democratic following the New Deal
African Americans (USSRG:83,2,2)
1658. head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1941
A. Philip Randolph (USSRG:84,1,0)
1659. With what action did A. Philip Randolph threaten Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941?
a march on Washington D.C. (USSRG:84,1,0)
1660. racial composition of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
1661. two reasons why A. Philip Randolph threatened to march on Washington D.C. in 1941
segregation in the military and discrimination in war industries (USSRG:84,1,0)
1662. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to A. Philip Randolph’s threat to march on Washington D.C. in 1941
Fair Employment Practices Commission (USSRG:84,1,0)
1663. Fair Employment Practices Commission
agency that established the federal government’s role in preventing workplace discrimination (USSRG:84,1,0)
1664. United States political party most supportive of equal rights for all races in 1941
Democratic Party (USSRG:84,1,0)
1665. four New Dealers who advocated racial equality
Eleanor Roosevelt, Harry Hopkins, Mary McLeod Bethune, and John Collier (USSRG:84,1,0)
1666. Whom did the New Deal seek to make families’ chief breadwinners?
1667. labor force participation rate of African American women relative to that of white women during the New Deal
higher for African American women (USSRG:84,1,1)
1668. How did the female labor force participation rate change during the 1930s?
1669. Why did the female labor force participation rate increase during the 1930s?
families needed extra money (USSRG:84,2,0)
1670. Whom did New Dealers generally think the Great Depression most affected?
1671. New Deal program that catered exclusively to men
Civilian Conservation Corps (USSRG:84,2,1)
1672. Why did World War II temporarily alter family income structures in the United States?
subjected men to the draft (USSRG:85,1,1)
1673. What United States government program can be considered its quintessential gendered welfare program?
G. I. Bill (USSRG:85,1,1)
1674. full name of the AFDC
Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (USSRG:85,1,2)
1675. system of which the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program was part
social security (USSRG:85,1,2)
1676. the most significant demographic shift in the 20th century United States
migration of poor African Americans from the South to northern cities (USSRG:85,1,2)
1677. New Deal program accelerating the northwards migration of poor African Americans by displacing sharecroppers
the Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:85,1,2)
1678. Which New Deal program’s regional inequalities encouraged the northwards migration of poor African Americans?
Social Security (USSRG:85,1,2)
1679. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson expanded funding for the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program
1680. President of the United States in 1965
Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:85,1,3)
1681. Which United States government program became vital to single‐parent households in the 1960s?
Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (USSRG:85,1,3)
1682. What effect did conservative critics of the Assistance for Families with Dependent Children program claim the New Deal had?
degraded family values and hard work (USSRG:85,1,3)
1683. decade in which the American civil rights struggle of the 1960s first began
1684. academic focus of the 1930s that discredited “scientific racism”
the effects of environment on behavior (USSRG:85,1,4)
1685. Which demographic group increasingly won important cases before the Supreme Court after the 1930s?
African Americans (USSRG:85,2,0)
1686. date on which Franklin D. Roosevelt died
April 12, 1945 (USSRG:85,2,1)
1687. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s vice president
Harry S. Truman (USSRG:85,2,1)
1688. law that Harry S. Truman vetoed unsuccessfully in 1946
Taft‐Hartley Act (USSRG:85,2,1)
1689. year in which a wave of strikes angered Harry S. Truman
1690. Who won the presidential election of 1948?
Harry S. Truman (USSRG:85,2,1)
1691. primary beneficiaries of Harry S. Truman’s expansion of the New Deal’s reach
African Americans (USSRG:85,2,1)
1692. Harry S. Truman’s legislative program to extend New Deal benefits to African Americans
the Fair Deal (USSRG:86,1,1)
1693. From whom did the Fair Deal encounter congressional resistance?
1694. Presidential Civil Rights Commission
agency created by Harry S. Truman in 1946 to expand African Americans’ rights (USSRG:86,1,1)
1695. year in which Harry S. Truman desegregated the military
1696. method that Harry S. Truman used to desegregate the military in 1948
executive order (USSRG:86,1,1)
1697. year in which Shelley v. Kramer was decided
1698. Supreme Court ruling in Shelley v. Kramer
Racially discriminatory housing agreements could not be enforced. (USSRG:86,1,1)
1699. How did Harry S. Truman’s Justice Department aid the civil rights cause in Shelley v. Kramer?
filed a brief with the Supreme Court supporting the cause (USSRG:86,1,1)
1700. type of brief filed by Harry S. Truman’s Justice Department in Brown v. Board of Education
amicus curiae (USSRG:86,1,1)
1701. national effect of Brown v. Board of Education
end of segregation in schools (USSRG:86,1,1)
1702. two reasons Harry S. Truman supported the civil rights cause
morals and concern about foreign views of the United States (USSRG:86,1,2)
1703. With which contemporary event could the early 1900s’ segregation of African Americans in the American South be compared?
Nazis’ treatment of Jews (USSRG:86,1,2)
1704. global post‐World War II trend that led to the formation of many new nations
1705. form of segregation in the American Northeast and West during the Truman administration
1706. region of the United States where blacks were restricted from voting in the first half of the 20th century
1707. the party of white supremacy in the American South prior to World War II
Democratic Party (USSRG:86,2,1)
1708. How did Dixiecrats react to Harry S. Truman’s civil rights measures?
with protests (USSRG:86,2,1)
1709. two laws Lyndon B. Johnson signed that pushed Dixiecrats toward the Republican Party
Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act (USSRG:86,2,1)
1710. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act
1711. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act
1712. the first sizable group to break away from the New Deal coalition
white southern Democrats (USSRG:86,2,1)
1713. Which part of the New Deal can be considered ‘discrimination by design’?
intentional exclusion of many African Americans from the original Social Security program (USSRG:86,2,2)
1714. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt have to exclude many African Americans from the original Social Security program?
to appease southern white Democrats (USSRG:86,2,2)
1715. percentage of African Americans ineligible for the original Social Security program
1716. number of African Americans eligible for Social Security’s retirement benefits in 1940
1717. number of workers newly eligible for Social Security after Harry S. Truman’s reforms
1718. percentage by which Harry S. Truman increased Social Security benefits
1719. Why did Dwight D. Eisenhower not cut Social Security?
did not want to engender the wrath of the program’s supporters (USSRG:86,2,3)
1720. the most popular entitlement program in the United States in 1953
Social Security (USSRG:86,2,3)
1721. Harry S. Truman’s successor as President
Dwight D. Eisenhower (USSRG:86,2,3)
1722. extension to Social Security under Dwight D. Eisenhower
full, permanent disability coverage for Americans over 50 (USSRG:86,2,3)
1723. year in which Lyndon B. Johnson increased Social Security benefits considerably
1724. improvement to Social Security in the 1970s under Jimmy Carter
cost‐of‐living adjustments (USSRG:86,2,3)
1725. two new tools of governance with which New Dealers entered World War II
regulation and fiscal management (USSRG:86,2,4)
1726. How did Keynesians propose to level the ups and downs of the business cycle?
countercyclical government fiscal policy (USSRG:87,1,0)
1727. Whose intellectual tradition did regulators in World War II‐era United States follow?
progressive reformers around 1900 (USSRG:87,1,0)
1728. How did regulators in World War II‐era United States seek to cure social and economic inequalities?
legislating the unpredictable behavior of the marketplace (USSRG:87,1,0)
1729. How did Keynesians seek to cure social and economic inequalities?
through growth (USSRG:87,1,0)
1730. three industries for which the Interstate Commerce Commission was created
railroads, trucking, and water carriers (USSRG:87,1,1)
1731. industry for which the Federal Reserve was created
1732. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
agency created after World War II to address problems in a broad range of industries (USSRG:87,1,2)
1733. full name of the OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USSRG:87,1,2)
1734. the most significant regulation passed in the United States since World War II
various laws designed to protect consumers from flawed goods (USSRG:87,1,2)
1735. time from which the earliest precedent of consumer protection laws dates in the United States
early 1800s (USSRG:87,1,2)
1736. New Deal principle on which the concept of consumer protection relies
the government’s responsibility to intervene in case of market failure (USSRG:87,1,2)
1737. event after which most consumer protection legislation was passed in the United States
World War II (USSRG:87,1,2)
1738. law that the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment changed
Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (USSRG:87,1,3)
1739. change that the Kefauver‐Harris Amendment made to the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
required more thorough testing of new drugs (USSRG:87,1,3)
1740. event that prompted the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment
increase in birth defects (USSRG:87,1,3)
1741. drug responsible for the increase in birth defects that prompted the 1962 Kefauver‐Harris Amendment
1742. What public sentiment prompted the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966?
distrust of the market’s ability to find a socially optimal solution (USSRG:87,1,3)
1743. two regulations imposed by the 1966 National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
safety standards for motor vehicles and their parts, and recalls in case of their violation (USSRG:87,1,3)
1744. the most diverse workplaces in the world during World War II
United States defense industries (USSRG:87,2,1)
1745. Whose theories gained support through the broad participation in the American economic recovery from the Great Depression?
John Maynard Keynes (USSRG:87,2,1)
1746. two government actions John Maynard Keynes believed would restore full employment following a recession
countercyclical spending on public works and measures to increase private investment (USSRG:87,2,1)
1747. two of prominent Keynesians during the New Deal
Alvin Hansen and Paul Samuelson (USSRG:87,2,1)
1748. How could a government avoid inflation after full employment was reached, according to Alvin Hansen and Paul Samuelson?
cutting spending or increasing taxes (USSRG:87,2,1)
1749. the richest country in the world after World War II
the United States (USSRG:87,2,2)
1750. How long did United States recessions between 1945 and the mid‐1970s typically last?
a year or less (USSRG:87,2,3)
1751. How many times higher was United States manufacturing production in 1965 than in 1945?
2 times (USSRG:87,2,3)
1752. How many times higher was United States manufacturing production in 1976 than in 1945?
3 times (USSRG:87,2,3)
1753. In which aspect of the American economy did the New Deal have little legacy?
international economics (USSRG:87,2,4)
1754. two ways in which Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted international stability as President
signing the Atlantic charter and supporting the United Nations (USSRG:87,2,4)
1755. three organizations created to foster a fair and profitable international trade system
World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,1,0)
1756. full name of the IMF
International Monetary Fund (USSRG:88,1,0)
1757. full name of the GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,1,0)
1758. Bretton Woods
economic conference of the Allied nations (USSRG:88,1,1)
1759. year in which Bretton Woods took place
1760. state in which Bretton Woods took place
New Hampshire (USSRG:88,1,1)
1761. currency established as the principal currency of the world market system at Bretton Woods
United States Dollar (USSRG:88,1,1)
1762. year in which the Bretton Woods international monetary system ended
1763. commodity to which the United State dollar was pegged under the Bretton Woods system
1764. assumption made by the Bretton Woods international monetary system
United States dollars were desirable globally. (USSRG:88,2,0)
1765. year in which Germany and Japan began to amass significant dollar reserves
1766. Why did Germany and Japan begin to amass significant dollar reserves in 1965?
trade surplus with the United States (USSRG:88,2,1)
1767. two aspects of the American economy that lessened the appeal of the Bretton Woods system internationally from 1966 to 1970
inflation and trade deficits (USSRG:88,2,1)
1768. practice ultimately responsible for the United States’ acceptance of floating exchange rates in 1973
speculation against the United States dollar (USSRG:88,2,1)
1769. Why did investors speculate against the United States dollar in the early 1970s?
was thought to be overvalued (USSRG:88,2,1)
1770. system which replaced the Bretton Woods agreement
floating exchange rates (USSRG:88,2,1)
1771. organization created at Bretton Woods to make loans to war‐ravaged European countries and developing nations
World Bank (USSRG:88,2,2)
1772. official name of the World Bank
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (USSRG:88,2,2)
1773. official name of the Marshall Plan
European Recovery Program (USSRG:88,2,2)
1774. How much money did the Marshall Plan distribute in Europe?
1775. years during which the Marshall Plan operated
from 1948 to 1952 (USSRG:88,2,2)
1776. number of European countries receiving money from the Marshall Plan
1777. domestic policy that the Marshall Plan replicated on an international scale
New Deal (USSRG:88,2,2)
1778. two advantages secured by the United States through the Marshall Plan
assured allegiance of European countries to the United States and created American export markets (USSRG:88,2,2)
1779. proposed post‐World war II organization to reduce barriers to trade among its members
International Trade Organization (USSRG:88,2,3)
1780. full name of the ITO
International Trade Organization (USSRG:88,2,3)
1781. weaker alliance created instead of the International Trade Organization
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (USSRG:88,2,3)
1782. meeting out of which the International Monetary Fund emerged
Bretton Woods (USSRG:89,1,1)
1783. aspect of the International Monetary Fund John Maynard Keynes and United States negotiators disagreed over
how to distribute the burden of keeping the global economy stable (USSRG:89,1,1)
1784. five functions of the International Monetary Fund
expand global trade, stabilize exchange rates, lower trade barriers, establish multilateral payment systems, and aid deeply indebted countries (USSRG:89,1,1)
1785. In what TWO ways would the International Monetary Fund reduce countries’ international deficits?
financial assistance and strong policy recommendations (USSRG:89,1,1)
1786. country that often set conditions for countries to qualify for International Monetary Fund loans
the United States (USSRG:89,1,2)
1787. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms
freedom of speech and religion; freedom from fear and want (USSRG:89,1,4)
1788. conflict waged to secure the Four Freedoms, according to Franklin D. Roosevelt
World War II (USSRG:89,1,4)
1789. What kind of security did freedom of speech and religion provide?
national security (USSRG:89,2,0)
1790. What kind of security did freedom from fear and want provide?
social security (USSRG:89,2,0)
1791. the most famous vehicle of World War II
1792. two effects of the spike in American demand after World War II
rising prices and rapid conversion from military to peacetime production (USSRG:89,2,1)
1793. Why did Americans begin to save more during World War II?
The war made them suspend their future plans. (USSRG:89,2,1)
1794. committee created by Franklin D. Roosevelt that recommended generous benefits for World War II veterans
Postwar Manpower Committee (USSRG:89,2,2)
1795. policy suggested by the Postwar Manpower Committee to keep World War II veterans from going straight to bread lines
large benefits packages (USSRG:89,2,2)
1796. total federal spending on American veterans’ benefits from 1944 to 1971
1797. percentage of the American federal budget dedicated to the G.I. Bill in 1948
1798. percentage of the American federal workforce working in the Veterans Administration in 1948
1799. full name of the VA
Veterans Administration (USSRG:90,1,0)
1800. law stipulating large benefits packages for World War II veterans
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (USSRG:90,1,0)
1801. Employment Act of 1946
law requiring the federal government to sustain maximum production, employment, and purchasing power (USSRG:90,1,1)
1802. Whom did the Employment Act of 1946 favor in its regulation of price levels relative to wages?
1803. How did Social Security support private consumption during periods of high unemployment?
transfer payments (USSRG:90,1,1)
1804. Whom did the Employment Act of 1946 make the country’s chief macroeconomic architect?
the president (USSRG:90,1,1)
1805. first president to take on a role as the United States’ chief macroeconomic architect
Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:90,1,1)
1806. full name of the CEA
Council of Economic Advisors (USSRG:90,1,2)
1807. law that created the Council of Economic Advisors
Employment Act of 1946 (USSRG:90,1,2)
1808. first chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors
Edwin Nourse (USSRG:90,1,2)
1809. Edwin Nourse’s ideological orientation
1810. Why did Harry S. Truman appoint Edwin Nourse as first chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors?
to ease the fears of businessmen and Republicans (USSRG:90,1,2)
1811. man appointed to the first Council of Economic Advisors to represent labor’s interests
Leon Keyserling (USSRG:90,1,2)
1812. nature of the government’s role in economics, according to Edwin Nourse
1813. nature of the government’s role in economics, according to Leon Keyserling
1814. By what percentage did Gross National Product fall during the first post‐World War II American recession?
1815. How did Harry S. Truman react to the first post‐World War II American recession?
gave military contracts to economically distressed areas (USSRG:90,2,1)
1816. level above which the American unemployment rate briefly rose during the first post‐World War II recession
1817. John F. Kennedy’s boldest use of Keynesian economic policy
Tax Reduction Act of 1964 (USSRG:90,2,2)
1818. president of the United States when the Tax Reduction Act of 1964 was passed
Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:90,2,2)
1819. John F. Kennedy’s successor
Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:90,2,2)
1820. month in which the Tax Reduction Act of 1964 was passed
1821. two actions stipulated by the Tax Reduction Act of 1964
increase spending and decrease taxes (USSRG:90,2,2)
1822. the United States’ paramount economic question in 1932
the labor question (USSRG:90,2,3)
1823. prospective political party whose chances of forming diminished during the New Deal
Labor Party (USSRG:91,1,1)
1824. act of Congress that first subjected unions to federal legislation
Wagner Act (USSRG:91,1,1)
1825. two main objectives of unions during the New Deal
full employment and high wages (USSRG:91,1,1)
1826. the United States’ response to the labor question after World War II
concept of an American Standard of Living (USSRG:91,1,1)
1827. political trend that caused union leaders to push for private pensions and healthcare after World War II
increasing election of Republicans to Congress (USSRG:91,1,2)
1828. How many times higher was union membership in the United States in 1945 than in 1933?
five times higher (USSRG:91,1,3)
1829. number of unionized workers in the United States in 1945
1830. percentage of American workers unionized in 1945
1831. Why did American wages grow more slowly than prices after World War II?
the end of wartime price ceilings (USSRG:91,2,0)
1832. company against which the United Autoworkers went on strike in 1946
General Motors (USSRG:91,2,1)
1833. How many workers went on strike in 1946?
about 5,000,000 (USSRG:91,2,1)
1834. How many work/man days were lost as a result of strikes in 1946?
1835. two types of workplaces in which strikes took place in 1946
mines and factories (USSRG:91,2,1)
1836. percentage increase in wages demanded by striking United Auto Workers in 1946
1837. Why did striking United Auto Workers demand a 30% increase in wages in 1946?
so that General Motors workers could buy the cars they made (USSRG:91,2,1)
1838. percentage increase in wages received by striking United Auto Workers in 1946
1839. What aim did the 1946 United Auto Workers strike fail to fulfill?
getting General Motors to open its books (USSRG:91,2,1)
1840. political party that dominated 1946 congressional elections
Republican Party (USSRG:91,2,2)
1841. law also known as the Labor‐Management Relations Act
Taft‐Hartley Act (USSRG:91,2,2)
1842. three provisions of the Taft‐Hartley Act
restricted solidarity strikes, let states ban union‐only workplaces, and forbade Communists in unions (USSRG:91,2,2)
1843. full name of COLA
cost of living adjustment (USSRG:92,1,1)
1844. full name of AIF
annual improvement factor (USSRG:92,1,1)
1845. year in which the Treaty of Detroit was agreed upon
1846. two parties to the 1950 Treaty of Detroit
General Motors and the United Autoworkers (USSRG:92,1,1)
1847. full name of GM
General Motors (USSRG:92,1,1)
1848. percentage of labor contracts including cost‐of‐living adjustments and annual improvement factors in 1960
1849. the principal focus of contract negotiation in 1960
graduated increases in wages (USSRG:92,1,1)
1850. year in which the American Federation of Labor and Committee for Industrial Organization merged
1851. How long after the American Federation of Labor‐Committee for Industrial Organization split did the two remerge?
20 years (USSRG:92,1,1)
1852. primary source of social and political change in the 1960s United States
civil rights activists (USSRG:92,1,1)
1853. two factors that contributed to the growth of the American middle class after World War II
governmentʹs commitment to welfare and international political circumstances (USSRG:92,1,3)
1854. American industry in which prospects for personal advancement were high during and after World War II
military industries (USSRG:92,1,3)
1855. number of World War II veterans who bought farms or started businesses using G.I. Bill money
1856. demographic in the military industries most likely to enter the American middle class during and after World War II
1857. two factors contributing to the increase in American consumer goods available during the Cold War
cheap raw materials from abroad and new production techniques (USSRG:92,2,2)
1858. three factors contributing to increasing American wages during the Cold War
social security, secure union wages, and veterans’ benefits (USSRG:92,2,2)
1859. most important factor in the American consumers’ republic of the Cold War era
expansion of home ownership (USSRG:92,2,3)
1860. three federal programs that helped expand home ownership after World War II
Home Owners Loan Corporation, Veterans Administration, and Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:92,2,3)
1861. 1862 law to which the G.I. Bill’s effect on home ownership was compared
Homestead Act (USSRG:92,2,3)
1862. Which historian first compared the G.I. Bill’s effect on home ownership with the Homestead Act?
Michael Bennet (USSRG:92,2,3)
1863. Michael Bennet’s profession
1864. How many World War II veterans purchased homes under the G.I. Bill?
1865. How did the Federal Housing Administration encourage banks to make home loans?
insuring them against losses (USSRG:92,2,4)
1866. How many families purchased houses under the Federal Housing Administration between 1945 and 1972?
1867. How many families upgraded their properties under the Federal Housing Administration between 1945 and 1972?
1868. number of condominiums and apartments insured by the Federal Housing Administration
1869. 1945 United States home ownership rate
1870. 1972 United States home ownership rate
1871. number of new homes built in the United States between 1944 and 1954
1872. Levitt and Sons
building company that used mass production techniques during World War II (USSRG:92,2,5)
1873. For whom did Levitt and Sons build housing during World War II?
war workers (USSRG:92,2,5)
1874. town created by Levitt and Sons after World War II
Levittown, New York (USSRG:92,2,5)
1875. baby boom
increase in birth rate following World War II (USSRG:93,1,0)
1876. cause of the baby boom
political and economic circumstances (USSRG:93,1,0)
1877. For how long after World War II did most Americans marry early and have large families?
20 years (USSRG:93,1,0)
1878. percentage of Americans with at least one year of college living outside their home state after World War II
1879. percentage of Americans with a high school diploma living outside their home state after World War II
1880. primary loyalty of Americans after the Cold War
loyalty to the nuclear family (USSRG:93,2,0)
1881. number of American college graduates at the beginning of World War II
1882. number of American college graduates in 1950
1883. year in which the G.I. Bill had the greatest impact
1884. number of American veterans enrolled in college in 1947
1885. percentage of American college students that were veterans in 1947
1886. legislation responsible for creating today’s “black bourgeoisie”
G.I. Bill (USSRG:93,2,2)
1887. number of American engineers schooled under the G.I. Bill
1888. number of American teachers schooled under the G.I. Bill
1889. number of American scientists schooled under the G.I. Bill
1890. number of American doctors and dentists schooled under the G.I. Bill
1891. Why did New Dealers postpone their healthcare proposals in the 1930s?
anticipated political obstacles (USSRG:93,2,3)
1892. majority party in Congress after the 1948 elections
Democratic Party (USSRG:93,2,3)
1893. full name of the AMA
American Medical Association (USSRG:93,2,3)
1894. organization that campaigned against Harry S. Truman’s national health insurance program
American Medical Association (USSRG:93,2,3)
1895. percentage of the average retired American’s income supplied by Social Security during the Fair Deal
1896. fraction of the under‐65 workforce covered by private health insurance in the 1960s
1897. organizations that helped American workers obtain private health insurance during the Cold War
1898. post‐World War II decade in which unionized manufacturing industries declined
1899. peak number of unionized workers receiving employer health insurance in the United States
1900. peak percentage of private health insurance paid for by employers in the United States
1901. year in which John F. Kennedy promised to reform healthcare for the elderly
1902. Lyndon B. Johnson’s reform program that included healthcare reform
Great Society (USSRG:94,1,2)
1903. healthcare program for the elderly begun under Lyndon B. Johnson
1904. healthcare program for the poor begun under Lyndon B. Johnson
1905. Why did non‐unionized companies offer their employees pensions during and after the New Deal?
to prevent unionization (USSRG:94,1,3)
1906. percentage of American workers in pension programs in 1945
1907. percentage of American workers in pension programs in 1970
1908. first year in which pensions were a point of conflict in collective bargaining in the United States
amassing of savings for long‐term investment (USSRG:94,1,4)
1910. fraction of all American stock market transactions carried out by mutual funds in the 1960s
1911. number of mutual funds in 1982 in the United States
1912. number of mutual funds in 1998 in the United States
over 3500 (USSRG:94,2,0)
1913. United States law regulating retirement plans
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (USSRG:94,2,1)
1914. year in which the Employee Retirement Income Security Act was passed
1915. financial innovation that allowed American workers to choose the risk level of their retirement plan
1916. percentage of American families owning stock in 1960
1917. percentage of American families owning stock in 2000
over 50% (USSRG:94,2,1)
1918. percentage of United States wealth held as stock in 2000
over 25% (USSRG:94,2,1)
1919. Charles Merrill
founder of Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith (USSRG:94,2,2)
1920. How did Charles Merrill eliminate self‐interest amongst his sales staff?
by eliminating commissions (USSRG:94,2,2)
1921. Merrill Lynch’s slogan
“own your share of America” (USSRG:94,2,2)
1922. United States company that promoted “people’s capitalism” in the 1950s
Merrill Lynch (USSRG:94,2,2)
1923. financially‐themed board game released in the 1950s
The World of Wall Street (USSRG:94,2,3)
1924. How did the percentage of stock‐holding Americans after World War II compare to that of other first‐world countries?
three to four times higher (USSRG:94,2,3)
1925. two banking practices that helped achieve a long period of stability for banks after World War II
conservative investment and high reserve ratios (USSRG:95,1,1)
1926. type of account on which New Deal regulations prohibited interest
commercial checking accounts (USSRG:95,1,1)
1927. full name of Fannie Mae
Federal National Mortgage Association (USSRG:95,1,1)
1928. specialty of Fannie Mae
housing loans (USSRG:95,1,1)
1929. the 3‐6‐3 rule’s suggested deposit interest rate
1930. the 3‐6‐3 rule’s suggested mortgage interest rate
1931. time by which bankers should arrive at the golf course, according to the 3‐6‐3 rule
3:00 p.m. (USSRG:95,1,1)
1932. sector of the American economy thought to be perfectly competitive during the 19th century
1933. two factors contributing to hardship amongst American farmers beginning in the 1880s
expanding supply and declining prices (USSRG:95,2,0)
1934. year in which Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Second Agricultural Adjustment Act was passed
1935. goal of the Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
to restore full agricultural production (USSRG:95,2,1)
1936. event that erased the problem of surplus in American agriculture
World War II (USSRG:95,2,1)
1937. year in which American agricultural overproduction first resurfaced as a problem after World War II
1938. Dwight D. Eisenhower’s party
Republican Party (USSRG:95,2,2)
1939. two groups for which Dwight D. Eisenhower allowed food prices to vary as president
urban consumers and free‐market conservatives (USSRG:95,2,2)
1940. year in which the Soil Bank Act was passed
1941. To whom did the Soil Bank Act of 1956 give federal subsidies?
farmers who took land out of production (USSRG:95,2,3)
1942. program in which the Soil Bank Act of 1956 was rooted
soil conservation program during the Dust Bowl (USSRG:95,2,3)
1943. 1961 United States law that offered subsidies for taking land out of production
Emergency Feed Grain Bill (USSRG:95,2,3)
1944. 1965 United States law that offered subsidies for taking land out of production
Food and Agriculture Act (USSRG:95,2,3)
1945. How did American farmers compensate for the loss in productive acreage caused by subsidies?
aggressively cultivating their land still in production (USSRG:95,2,3)
1946. cause of the decline of agriculture in the American economy
industrial expansion (USSRG:96,1,1)
1947. When did the decline of agriculture in the American economy begin?
early 19th century (USSRG:96,1,1)
1948. How did increases in real income affect spending on food in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s?
made food a smaller portion of expenditures (USSRG:96,1,1)
1949. In what TWO ways did the use of workers in agriculture change in as technology improved?
became less necessary and more expensive (USSRG:96,1,2)
1950. technique that decreased sharecroppers’ competitiveness in the American South
chemical defoliation of cotton plants (USSRG:96,1,2)
1951. advance in tomato production that allowed mechanical harvesting
tougher skin (USSRG:96,1,2)
1952. three American groups that expedited technological improvements in agriculture after World War II
Department of Agriculture, state agencies, and college research facilities (USSRG:96,1,2)
1953. United States government agency with the biggest effect on the American people over the last 50 years
Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:96,1,3)
1954. How did the Federal Housing Administration’s refusal to insure red‐lined districts affect those areas?
expedited their decay (USSRG:96,2,0)
1955. How many times more mortgage insurance did St. Louis suburbs receive than the city itself between 1933 and 1960?
5 times (USSRG:96,2,0)
1956. number of buildings demolished in American urban renewal plans between 1949 and 1967
1957. number of people displaced in American urban renewal plans between 1949 and 1967
1958. How did American politicians and city planners react to the decay of urban areas after World War II?
with urban renewal programs (USSRG:96,2,1)
1959. the biggest beneficiaries of the New Deal
white working‐ and middle‐class men and their families (USSRG:96,2,2)
1960. United States president who began the war on poverty
Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:96,2,2)
1961. year in which the Economic Opportunity Act was passed
1962. law that contained most of Lyndon B. Johnson’s anti‐poverty programs
Economic Opportunity Act (USSRG:96,2,2)
1963. three provisions of the Economic Opportunity Act
opened training camps, gave grants to small farmers and businesses, and supported local anti‐poverty programs (USSRG:96,2,2)
1964. effect of the Economic Opportunity Act on the New Deal coalition
caused former allies to leave the coalition (USSRG:96,2,2)
1965. side‐effect of over‐employment according to Keynes
1966. conflict whose cost increased shortly after John F. Kennedy’s tax cut
Vietnam War (USSRG:97,1,1)
1967. chair of the Council of Economic Advisers under Lyndon B. Johnson
Walter Heller (USSRG:97,1,1)
1968. full name of OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (USSRG:97,2,0)
1969. year in which the Yom Kippur War took place
simultaneous inflation and economic stagnation (USSRG:97,2,0)
1971. four possible reasons for the American stagflation in the 1970s
rising oil prices, declining industrial competitiveness, cost of the Vietnam War, and cost of the war on poverty (USSRG:97,2,1)
1972. group that believed special interest groups were taking jobs and money from mainstream Americans in the 1970s
Silent Majority (USSRG:97,2,1)
1973. taxpayer revolts
demonstrations by those who believed that minorities controlled the government and wanted small government during the 1970s (USSRG:97,2,1)
1974. poster child of American industrial dominance after World War II
automobile industry (USSRG:97,2,2)
1975. three factors in the decline of American dominance in the automobile industry during the 1970s
German and Japanese competition, rising oil prices, and outsourcing to low‐wage labor sources (USSRG:97,2,2)
1976. Why did conservative politicians resist unionization in the Sunbelt after World War II?
to keep the region competitive in the labor market (USSRG:98,1,0)
1977. Ronald Reagan’s successor as president
George H. W. Bush (USSRG:98,1,1)
1978. economic approach favored by Ronald Reagan
supply‐side economics (USSRG:98,1,2)
1979. Ronald Reagan’s chief economist
Arthur Laffer (USSRG:98,1,2)
1980. Ronald Reagan’s 1981 tax cut legislation
Economic Recovery Tax Act (USSRG:98,2,0)
1981. effect of Reagan’s economic policies on wealth distribution
redistributed money from the poor to the rich (USSRG:98,2,0)
1982. problem states encountered in trying to regulate the economy on their own under Ronald Reagan
insufficient budget (USSRG:98,2,1)
1983. policy that partially caused the Savings and Loan Crisis from 1986 to 1989
elimination of geographic restrictions on investment firms (USSRG:98,2,1)
1984. full name of the FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (USSRG:98,2,2)
1985. types of area in which financial services disappeared after the deregulation of banks under Ronald Reagan
central urban areas (USSRG:99,1,0)
1986. shift of services once in the public domain to individual ownership
1987. Why did the most recent attempt to privatize Social Security to lose steam?
a series of corporate scandals (USSRG:99,1,3)
1988. two industries that triggered the recent first American depression since the Great Depression
banking and mortgage industries (USSRG:99,2,0)
1989. generation whose members benefit from Social Security, making it politically difficult to dismantle
Baby Boom generation (USSRG:99,1,3)
1990. first decade in which the ratio of Social Security beneficiaries to supporters strained the system