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breakdown of social norms; society without social norms
Mednick proposed that certain high-risk individuals inherited this that is less sensitive to environmental stimuli which makes it less likely that they will develop the responses necessary to inhibit
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
explored how urban life fundamentally shaped the nature of criminal
chicago school or criminology
learning by association
emphasis on the individual criminal as a person who is capable of calculating what he or she wants to do. This idea was supported by a philosophy that held that humans had free will and that behavior was guided by hedonism (pain-and pleasure) in which they calculated the risks and rewards involved in
book written by Elijah Anderson in which he explains that we all must have respect
Code of the street
taking a macro-level perspective, they argued for the need to discern what is distinctive about the very culture and structure of American society
biological people have a greater affinity for one another.
a process by which humans and animals learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and avoid punishments.
structural factors increased social disorganization and that, in turn, disorganized areas had higher levels of crime than organized areas.
stressed the conflict between absolute good and absolute evil.
Tarde’s laws of imitation
- imitate in proportion to contact
- *more common in cities
- inferior imitates superior
- *small cities are more likely to imitate larger ones
- newer fashions replace older ones
- *like the gun replaced the knife
tends to lower neurological sensitivity to environmental stimulus.
the FBI publishes these in which it lists the number of various crimes that have become know to the nation’s police departments
uniform crime reports
studied the General Strain Theory
attempted to specify the mechanisms and processes through which criminal learning takes place through the social learning theory.
author of Crimewarps
author of Code of the Streets
author of On Crimes and Punishment
Cesare Bonesana Marchese de Beccaria
developed the concentric zone theory
“Father of modern criminology”
European anatomist, expanded the idea and argued that the shape of an individual’s head could explain his or her personal characteristics.
credited as the first person to test the IQs of prison inmates and concluded that most inmates are feebleminded.
studied prisons and advocated prison reform; his work is often credited with having influenced the passage of England’s Penitentiary Act of 1779 which addressed prison reform.
claimed there was a relationship between facial features and behavior.
Agnew’s coping mechanisms
- behavioral- change in behavior (drinking, drugs, etc.)
- cognitive- ignoring the problem (bills, etc.)
Cloward & Ohlin’s subcultures:
- criminal- older offenders serve as role models for a stable criminal life and train youths in the performance of illegal enterprises.
- conflict- youths lack the opportunity to embark on more lucrative, utilitarian illegal careers, they turn to violence as a way of establishing a “rep” or social status.
- retreatist- drug-using subculture.
Cohen’s groups of delinquent boys:
- corner boy- receives status for being who they are
- college boy- lower class boys who work hard to achieve middle class
- delinquent boy- committing crimes
5 propositions of social learning theory:
- 1.) Delinquency is learned in the same way as conforming behavior.
- 2.) Primary learning mechanisms are differentially, reinforced, experiences/expected rewards, punishments and imitations.
- 3.) Rewards and punishments can be non-social. Example: drugs and a lot of social rewards.
- 4.) Learning occurs as a process of differential association.
- 5.) This is a complex process with reciprocal effects.
Kretchmer’s body types:
- asthenic- lean and narrowly built, with a deficiency of thickness in their overall bodies.
- athletic- broad shoulders, excellent musculature, a deep chest, a flat stomach, and powerful legs.
- pyknics- medium build, with a propensity to be rotund, sort of soft appearing with rounded shoulders, broad faces and short stubby hands.
Lombroso’s criminal classifications:
- born criminals- people with atavistic characteristics.
- insane criminals- including idiots, imbeciles and paranoiacs as well as epileptics and alcoholics
- occasional criminals (criminaloids)- their crimes are explained primarily by opportunity, although they too have innate traits that predispose them to criminality
- criminals of passion- they commit crimes because of anger, love or honor and are characterized by being propelled to crime by an “irresistible force”.
- endomorphy- soft, fat people
- mesomorphy- muscular/athletic
- ectomorphy- skinny, flat, fragile
types of spiritualism:
- trial by battle
- trial by ordeal
What are the theoretical suggestions regarding crime?
understand, reduce and control crime
What environmental neurotoxin is said to be traced to frontal lobe deficits?
What have most people developed to explain criminal behavior?
Most people’s opinions about crime are drawn less from sustained thought and more from the implicit understandings that they have come to embrace during their lives.
What industrialized nation has the highest amount of lawlessness?
Whose key ingredient to crime is the “American Dream”?
biosocial theorists suggest that biological traits interact with the social environment to shape human behavior.
Human genome project
developed the theory of juvenile delinquency
Shaw and McKay
found that IQ and delinquency go together.
Hirschi and Hindelang's (1977) findings
Merton argues that this generates considerable crime and deviance.
contended that the pathology lay not in one ecological location but rather in the broader cultural and structural arrangements that constitute america's social fabric.
Merton's strain theory
the cultural homogeneity (the quality of being of uniform throughout in composition or structure) and hegemony (the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others) were powerful forces that pushed everyone to become and american and to embrace the national culture of social ascent.
Merton's dominant reality
Merton's modes of adaptation:
- conformity- they continue to ascribe to the cultural success goal, and to believe in the legitimacy of the conventional or institutionalized means through which success was to be attained.
- innovation- those who continue to embrace pecuniary success as a worthy end but turn to illegitimate means when they find their legitimate prospects for economic gain blocked
- ritualists- maintain outward conformity to the norms governing institutionalized means
- retreatists- escape society’s requirements through various deviant means—alcoholism, drug addiction, psychosis, vagrancy and so on. Suicide is the worst.
- Rebellious- a socialist who argues for group success rather than individual success and for norms mandating the distribution of wealth equally and according to need rather than unequally and according to the outcome of ruthless competition.
Merton's universal goal:
stressed the criminogenic role of conformity to the universal and conventional cultural goal of pecuniary success.
What was one of the first naturalistic explanations in criminological theory?
"Hippocrates dictum that the brain is the organ of the mind."
Outside of which context is it impossible to understand criminological theory?
criminal behavior is learned through social interactions