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What are the two important components of most radiographic exams?
- patient preparation
- contrast media
What two ways are patients preparation performed?
the removing of clothing, jewelry that may cover the area that xrays will pass through.
exams that require cleansing enemas so that structures in the abdomen are not obscured by gas or fecal material
solutions or gases introduced into the body to provide contrast on a radiograph between an organ and its surrounding tissue.
3 types of contrast media:
- iodine-based media
- barium-based media
What is an ionic contrast media?
What is a non-ionic contrast media?
- it is inert and cannot be absorbed by the body
What is the medium of choice for gastrointestinal studies?
when surgery is imminent or a perforated stomach is suspected which contrast media is the perfered ?
a water soluble iodine contrast agent would be used.
What is the primary contrast agent for chest radiography?
Exams performed by the radiographer on particular regions of the body with the use of x-ray tube?
What category are radiographs of the region above the neck?
skull and headwork
Skull and headwork studies are done primarily by these procedures?
Exams done to the skull and head region without CT or in junction are:
- facial bones
- nasal bones
- temporomandibular joints (TMJs)
The mandible and TMJs are primarily imaged using this?
Headwork imaging is usually performed for what reason(s)?
- evaluate possible fractures
- locate foreign bodies
- examine abnormalities
Areas such as the sella turcica, zygomatic arches, mastiods, and orbits are imaged using?
What is the most commonly radiographed region of the body?
Name studies of the thoracic cavity:
- sternoclavicular joints (STJs)
The extremities category is divided into what regions?
Name upper extremity studies:
- acromioclavicular joints (ACJs)
Name lower extremity studies?
- lower legs
How many views are needed for bone studies?
2 at right angles from each other
Why are radiologic exams on extremities performed?
- evaluate bone fractures
The spine category includes these studies:
- cervical spine
- thoracic spine
- lumbar spine
- sacroiliac joints
A "live" radiological study
study of the esophagus, requiring the patient to swallow a barium sulfate preparation.
studies of the stomach and performed with the use of barium sulfate.
upper gastrointestinal (GI) series
Procedure used to evaluate hiatal hernias, peptic ulcers, and other stomach disorders.
upper gastrointestinal series
procedure involved in radiographing the abdomen every hour to watch the progress of barium through the small intestine?
small bowel examination
radiographic exams of the colon which introduce a barium solution.
barium enema (BE)
What is used in air-contrast studies of the colon to reduce cramping and peristalis.
a study where air is added to a barium study for better visualization of abnormaties in the colon.
air-contrast barium enema
procedure where an iodinated contrast agent is injected into the bloodstream through a vein in the arm.
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
examination of the urinary system
a fluoroscopic study of the urinary system while it is filled with contrast agent
a procedure where the patient urinates the contrast material while under fluoroscopy
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
a fluoroscopic exam performed to diagnose anomalies in the biliary system or pancreas
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
List fluoroscopic exams
- upper GI series
- barium enema
- urinary system studies
study that visualizes the arteries of a particular body regions. done with contrast and fluoro.
exam used to evaluate the structures in and around a joint space. uses fluoro and MRI
examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes
procedure used to destroy stones in the kidney or ureter by using sonic shock waves.
a radiographic study of the breast
an examination of the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord.
study of the salivary glands after they have been injected with contrast.
study used to evaluate the veins in a particular area of the body.
venography is supplemented with and gradually being replaced by?
what components make up a diagnostic radiograph?
- proper positioning
- selects proper exposure factors
- image interpretation
what is the image recepter in CR?
photostimulable phosphor plate
what is the IR in direct digital radiography(DR)?
a charged electronic device
what is radiographic film composed of?
emulsion spread on a thin transparent sheet of polymer plastic
What is developer?
the chemical solution that causes the crystals in the film that were struck by xrays to become black metallic silver
elements used in digital radiography?
- cesium iodide
Digital radiography can be produced in two methods:
indirect method of DR
the xrays are first converted to light then the light is converted to electronic signal
xrays interact with selenium creating a n electronic signal
advantages of digital radiography:
- elimination of film and chemistry
- quicker time for patients
- image manipulation and adjustment
- decreased patient dose
- cautious of exposure creep
- elimination of fog
- image storage
factors affecting the radiographic image
- geometric factors
- detail/resolution(measured in line pairs permm lp/mm)
- film (10 lp/mm)
- digital does not have the resolving ability of film, but contrast is greater
- photographic properties
- operator console/control panel
- time (sec/msec)
- voltage (kVp)
- amperage (mA)
Factors that affect quality of radiograph?
- density * most important
What determines the quality of the xray beam?
- higher the kVp the higher the energy
What determines the quantity of xray?
- milliampere (mA)
- greater the mA the greater the amount of radiation
what is density?
is the amount of blackening
What are the 5 radiographic densities in order of least to great in the human body:
- gas/air (black)
- metal (white)
what is the inverse square law?
What is fog?
- it is created by scatter radiation.
- it increase the overall density of the radiographic image and it detracts from the overall quality of the image
Name two devices that reduce exposure field size (beam limiters)?
What is contrast?
a variation in density
What are some advantages of beam limiting devices?
- reduce exposure field
- decrease amount of radiation
- decrease scatter radiation
- decrease fog
Between where is the greatest contrast in the body demonstrated?
bone and air
What is a grid?
- the device used to reduce scatter radiation.
- placed between subject and IR
What factors affect distortion?
How can you reduce magnification?
increase the SID
Visibility of detail is influenced by:
- visual acuity
What is the focal spot?
- the spot or source from which the xrays originate.
- a large focal spot produces unsharp images
radiographs obtained at intervals of several minutes during the time that the kidneys, ureters, and bladder are highlighted by contrast material