Psychology Chapter 1

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Psychology Chapter 1
2010-10-02 19:08:54
Psychology Chapter

Psychology Chapter 1
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. T or F: everybody dreams during a normal night of sleep.
  3. T or F: as the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the time it takes for the victim to get help decreases.
    False; increases
  4. T or F: eyewitness testimony is often unreliable.
  5. Scientific method
    Consists of the orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow
  6. Steps of the Scientific Method
    • 1. Identify a research problem
    • 2. Design a study to investigate the problem
    • 3. Collect & analyze data
    • 4. Draw conclusions from data
    • 5. Communicate your findings
  7. Theory
    A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of seperate facts are related
  8. Goals of Psychology
    • 1. Describe
    • 2. Explain
    • 3. Predict
    • 4. Influence
    • .... Behavior & mental processes
  9. Describe
    Tell what happened
  10. Explain
    Tell why something happened
  11. Prediction
    When explanations lead to hypothesis
  12. Influence
    When research is applied to a problem
  13. Basic research
    Seek knowledge and gain a general scientific understanding; research that produces new knowledge
  14. Applied research
    Specifically trying to solve specific problems; helps determine how theories & research findings can be used to solve practical problems
  15. Wilhelm Wundt
    "father of psychology" - founded structuralism
  16. Introspection
    Look within yourself
  17. Structuralism
    First formal school of thought; The view that the purpose of psychology it to identify the basic elements of conscious mental experience
  18. Functionalism
    Concerned with how humans & animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment
  19. William James
    Founded functionalism
  20. Charles Darwin
    Looked at how the evolutionary theory applies to psychology
  21. Mary Whiton Calkins
    Completed requirements for a doctorate at Harvard but Harvard refused to grant the degree to a woman
  22. Francis Cecil Sumner
    1st african american to recieve a PhD in psychology; considered father of African American psychology
  23. Kenneth Clark
    Gained national recognition from his writings of harmful effects on children from racial segregation; his research helped desegregate schools
  24. George Sanchez
    Hispanic american psychologist; studied bias & intelligence testing
  25. Behaviorism
    Views observable, measurable behavior as the only subject matter for psychology
  26. Behaviorists helped to solidify:
    Psychology as a science
  27. B.F. Skinner
    Founded Operant conditioning; Believed that you can understand behaviors by analyzing conditions before they occur & the consequences that follow them
  28. Psychoanalysis
    Freud's theory of personality & treatment disorders; primary focus on the unconscious
  29. Humanistic psychology
    Focuses on a positive view of human nature - "all people are good & possess free will"
  30. Cognitive psychology
    Focuses on mental processes such as memory, problem solving, language, decision making & perception
  31. Gestalt psychology
    Believes that the mind interprets experiences in patterns
  32. Information-processing theory
    The brain processes info one step at a time
  33. Useful theories lead to:
    Testable hypothesis & the development of solutions to real world problems
  34. Critical thinking
    A process of objectively evaluating prepositions and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented
  35. Independent thinking
    Not automatically accepting what you read or hear
  36. Suspension of judgement
    Gather info on all sides before taking a position
  37. Willingness to abandon prior judgement
    When evidence contradicts what you believe
  38. Descriptive research methods
    Yields descriptions of behavior
  39. Naturalistic observation
    When we observe & record behavior in its natural setting without influencing or controlling it
  40. Case study
    On one person or small number of people & use things like interviews, observations, or psychological testing
  41. Survey research
    Has to have a population (entire group of interest)
  42. Sample
    Part of a population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire population
  43. Representative sample
    One that mirrors your population of interest & includes subgroups in the same proportion as found in the population
  44. Interviews & questionnaires
    The results can be affected by wording, content, and the interviewers characteristics
  45. Correlation method
    Established the degree of relationship between two variables
  46. Experimental method
    Only research method to identify cause and effect relationships between two or more variables
  47. Independent variable
    Can be deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes changes in another behavior or condition
  48. Dependent variable
    The end result, what you measure at the end of an experiment
  49. Experimental group
    The group that is given the independent variable
  50. Control group
    Exposed to the same experimental environment but not given the independent variable
  51. Confounding variables
    Variables that can influence without you wanting them to
  52. Placebo effect
    When the response to treatment is due to a persons expextations and not the actual treatment
  53. Double-blind procedure
    Neither the experimenter or participants know who is getting the treatment
  54. Legality
    Research has to conform to the law
  55. Informed consent
    Informed of the purpose of the research and any potential harm that could comr from it
  56. Publication
    Make findings available to others so they can replace it
  57. Clinical psychologists
    Specialize in the diagnosis & treatment of mental & behavioral disorders
  58. Counseling psychologists
    Deals with less severe psychological issues
  59. Developmental psychologists
    Study how people grow, develop, & change throughout life
  60. Social psychologists
    Study how individuals feel, think, and behave in social settings