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Describe Baroque Music as a whole.
- Massive and Grandios
- large churches
- large orchestras
- tons of ornamentation
- large choruses
- overabundance of small, decorative details
- loved drama (opera, oratorio, contata)
Advances in Science
- beginnings of the Industrial revolution
What is the industrial revolution in how it relates to music?
- It brought the rise of the mechant class, but the royal courts and religion was still the principle supporters of music.
- Cities start the employment of Kapelmeisters (master of the chapel).
What is the patronage system?
- The employment of a person to write music for one noble person or family.
- steady pay
- composer had to please patron
- involves teaching singers, rehearing instumentalists, and writing music.
Describe a harpsicord.
- looks like a piano, sounds like plucking instead of striking chords.
- accompanying part and solo instrument.
- key pushes up a quill plectrum to pluck a wire string.
- no control over dynamics.
Describe Basso Continuo.
- provide a solid harmonic foundation for the melody
- almost only in Baroque music
- at least 2 instruments
top and bottom voices are the most important, inner voices turned to accompaniment
shorthand system to notate chords by placing numbers under bass line
melody for Baroque music
- two distinct styles:
- dramatic virtuoistic vocal music
- mechanical character of instrumental music
irregular phrase length
- stable, diatonic chords support melody
- played by basso continuo
- standard chord progressions developed
- tonality reducced to major and minor keys
regularly repeating rhythms
- musical timbre becomes more varied:
- exact instruments specified
- new combos of instruments and voices explored
- idiomatic (exploits strengths and avoids weaknesses of instruments)
- chordal, homophonic texure predominates
- polarized voices
- basso continuo supports melody above
a framatic work set to music
- little book
- the text
- usually basked on story drawn from history and any theology of ancient Greek and Rome
- to sing alone
- solo song with single instrumental accompaniment
- Italian for "something recited"
- flexible rhythm to imitate natural speech.
- purpose is to move plot along
- rapidly repeated notes, long notes at the end of phrases
- accompanied by only basso continuo
- Italian for "song"
- single idea or emotion - doesn't advance plot
- longer pieces, shorter texts
- formal pattern, sections repeated
- virtuoistic melismas
- can be an independant musical unit
- accompanied by basso continuo and part of or all of the orchestra
half way between an aria and recitative
- first important opera
- written by Claudio Monteverdi
- "something sung" by a soloist, with accompaniment
- in home or small auditorium
- unrequisite love, ancient history, or mythology
- 15-18 minutes
- contrasting sections of aria and recitative
Barbara Strozzi's music
- contains descending basso ostinato, common in laments
- "voglio morire" from lamente segreto
- opera seria
- spoken play with popular tunes inserted - parodies, comic
- appealed to middle and lower class
- poked fun at establishments
- specifically popular in London
- John Gay - The Beggar's Opera
- idiomatic music
- usually less than 20 players
- strings form the core of the ensembles
- gradually added pairs of woodwinds
- occasionally trumpet and timpanis
- sometimes french horns
- basso continuo still essential
a prelude to a large work like an opera, oratorio, ballet, etc.
- 2 parts:
- slow duple, triple rhythms
- fast triple, imitatice, occasionally concludes with slow dotted rhythm
- "Something sounded"
- instrumental chamber music
- 4-6 movements, each similar to a dance
ways to designate a sonata
- by number of performers [solo(three total) or trio(four total)]
- by performance location:
- sonata de camera
- sonata de chiesa
sonata de camera
- in residential setting
- movements bore same characters and name of particular dance
- allemande, sarabande, gavotte, gigue
sonata de chiesa
- performed in a church
- movements designated by tempo
- largo, adagio, allegro, etc.
- etablished functional harmony
- frequently used walking bass
- a competition between soloist and orchestra
- solo concerto: one soloist and orchestra
- concerto grosso: one small group of soloists and orchestra
- typically three movements: fast, slow, fast
concerto grosso movements
- three: fast slow fast
- 1: serious, often ritornello form
- 2: lyrical and tender, free form
- 3: often a rustic, dance-like character, ritornello form
- return or refrain
- all or part of a main theme
- returns throughout movement
- concertino inserts virtuoistic passages in between passages of the ritornello
melody of late baroque
- long expansive, irregular phrases
- sequential development
- pattern repeated one note higher or lower over and over
rhythmic style of late baroque
- strong recognizable sense of meter
- motor rhythm
texture in late baroque
return of counterpoint
fugue's main musical idea
each part in turn presents the subject for the first time
freer sections where the subject is not heard in its entirety
a note, usually in the bass, sustained for a period of time while the harmonies change around it
- religious subject
- not expensive
- not staged
- began with overture
- vernacular language
shifting the volume or sound suddenly from one level to another
a showy instrumental piece
da capo form
ABA, ternary form, for an aria
a collection of dances, usually from two to seven in number, all in one key for one group of instruments