Music Lit Study
Card Set Information
Music Lit Study
Baroque vocabulary notes
Describe Baroque Music as a whole.
Massive and Grandios
tons of ornamentation
overabundance of small, decorative details
loved drama (opera, oratorio, contata)
Advances in Science
beginnings of the Industrial revolution
What is the industrial revolution in how it relates to music?
It brought the rise of the mechant class, but the royal courts and religion was still the principle supporters of music.
Cities start the employment of Kapelmeisters (master of the chapel).
What is the patronage system?
The employment of a person to write music for one noble person or family.
composer had to please patron
involves teaching singers, rehearing instumentalists, and writing music.
Describe a harpsicord.
looks like a piano, sounds like plucking instead of striking chords.
accompanying part and solo instrument.
key pushes up a quill plectrum to pluck a wire string.
no control over dynamics.
Describe Basso Continuo.
provide a solid harmonic foundation for the melody
almost only in Baroque music
at least 2 instruments
top and bottom voices are the most important, inner voices turned to accompaniment
shorthand system to notate chords by placing numbers under bass line
melody for Baroque music
two distinct styles:
dramatic virtuoistic vocal music
mechanical character of instrumental music
irregular phrase length
stable, diatonic chords support melody
played by basso continuo
standard chord progressions developed
tonality reducced to major and minor keys
regularly repeating rhythms
musical timbre becomes more varied:
exact instruments specified
new combos of instruments and voices explored
idiomatic (exploits strengths and avoids weaknesses of instruments)
chordal, homophonic texure predominates
basso continuo supports melody above
a framatic work set to music
usually basked on story drawn from history and any theology of ancient Greek and Rome
to sing alone
solo song with single instrumental accompaniment
Italian for "something recited"
flexible rhythm to imitate natural speech.
purpose is to move plot along
rapidly repeated notes, long notes at the end of phrases
accompanied by only basso continuo
Italian for "song"
single idea or emotion - doesn't advance plot
longer pieces, shorter texts
formal pattern, sections repeated
can be an independant musical unit
accompanied by basso continuo and part of or all of the orchestra
half way between an aria and recitative
first important opera
written by Claudio Monteverdi
"something sung" by a soloist, with accompaniment
in home or small auditorium
unrequisite love, ancient history, or mythology
contrasting sections of aria and recitative
Barbara Strozzi's music
contains descending basso ostinato, common in laments
"voglio morire" from lamente segreto
spoken play with popular tunes inserted - parodies, comic
appealed to middle and lower class
poked fun at establishments
specifically popular in London
John Gay - The Beggar's Opera
usually less than 20 players
strings form the core of the ensembles
gradually added pairs of woodwinds
occasionally trumpet and timpanis
sometimes french horns
basso continuo still essential
a prelude to a large work like an opera, oratorio, ballet, etc.
slow duple, triple rhythms
fast triple, imitatice, occasionally concludes with slow dotted rhythm
instrumental chamber music
4-6 movements, each similar to a dance
ways to designate a sonata
by number of performers [solo(three total) or trio(four total)]
by performance location:
sonata de camera
sonata de chiesa
sonata de camera
in residential setting
movements bore same characters and name of particular dance
allemande, sarabande, gavotte, gigue
sonata de chiesa
performed in a church
movements designated by tempo
largo, adagio, allegro, etc.
etablished functional harmony
frequently used walking bass
a competition between soloist and orchestra
: one soloist and orchestra
: one small group of soloists and orchestra
typically three movements
: fast, slow, fast
concerto grosso movements
: fast slow fast
: serious, often ritornello form
: lyrical and tender, free form
: often a rustic, dance-like character, ritornello form
return or refrain
all or part of a main theme
returns throughout movement
concertino inserts virtuoistic passages in between passages of the ritornello
no new genres
melody of late baroque
long expansive, irregular phrases
pattern repeated one note higher or lower over and over
rhythmic style of late baroque
strong recognizable sense of meter
texture in late baroque
return of counterpoint
latin for "Flight"
fugue's main musical idea
each part in turn presents the subject for the first time
freer sections where the subject is not heard in its entirety
a note, usually in the bass, sustained for a period of time while the harmonies change around it
began with overture
shifting the volume or sound suddenly from one level to another
a showy instrumental piece
da capo form
ABA, ternary form, for an aria
a collection of dances, usually from two to seven in number, all in one key for one group of instruments