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What are the products and reactants of ADDITION reactions?
Molecule (alkene or alkyne) + X2 or HX ----> molecule
What is a hydrogenation reaction?
- hydrogenation--hydrogen is added
- Addition reaction
What is halogenation?
- halogenation--halogen is added
- Addition reaction
Describe substitution/what are the products and reactants?
large molecule (alkane or aromatic) + X2 Light------> large molecX + XOther
Only one atom "switches"
Have a benzene ring
Only undergoes substitution, NOT ADDITION
What are the products and reactants of elimination?
molecule---->alkene/alkyne + little
Elimination: alkyl halides
react with a strong base (ie. OH-)
create double bonds
has a product of H and other (ie. HCl)
creates double bonds
has a product of H2O
Estification (products and reactants)
alcohol + carboxylic acid---->ester +H2O
How are esters named?
Alcohol is named like a branch
ie. ethyl propanoate
how are esters made?
attaching an alcohol and carboxylic acid together and removing H2O and attaching the two together where the OH and H were taken from
What are the two types of combustion reactions and what do they look like?
- I) complete
- C?H? (O2) + O2(g) ------> CO2(g) + H20(g)
- II) incomplete
- C?H? (O?) + O2(g) ----> H2O(g) + (CO2(g) + CO(g) + C(s)
- I) Ethane cracking-does not break smaller carbon molecules and does not break bonds
- Makes ethane into ethene and H2
Making isomers by branching
Straight chain--->aromatic (burns better) + H2
How do you recognize a carboxylic acid?
It has a carboxyl group
A carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to an OH
How do you name carboxylic acids?
ie. pentanoic acid
Define organic and state exceptions
carbon containing molecules
- Oxides of carbon (ie. CO(g) and CO2(g)
How do you name alkanes?
- 1) longest continuous chain of carbons (parent chain)
- 2) number the parent chain to give the branches the lowest possible numbers (if it is a tie, the alphabetically lower branch gets the smaller number)
- 3) name the branch alphabetically
- 4) name the parent chain
same molecular formula but different bonding
Properties of alkanes
- CnH2n+2 any alkane with no ring
- no polar
- the bigger the homologous series the higher the boiling point, due to LDF
- alkanes that contain a ring
- each ring removes 2 hydrogen atoms
How do you name cycloalkanes
- 1) the ring is considered the parent chain as long as there are simple branches on it
- 2) in either case the # of carbons gets the prefix "cyclo"
- have one or more double bonds
- every double bond means 2 less H's
- if there is only DB
How to name alkenes
- suffix becomes -#-ene
- *the double bond must be in the parent chain and gets the smallest # possible (of higher priority than branches)
- have 1 or more triple bonds
- CnH2n-2 (non cyclic with 1 triple bond)
- name like alkenes but with the ending ___yne
How to name aromatics
- in a molecule with simple branching the parent is "benzene"
- in a molecule with complicated branching the benzene ring becomes a branch and is called "phenyl"
not aromatic, does not contain benzene
hydrocarbon has all single bonds
double of triple bonds
Units of unsaturation
compare to an alkene: every 2 H's missing=unit of unsaturation=one extra bond OR ring
takes large hydrocarbon and makes it smaller
What is the reactivity of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes?
- Alkanes-all single bonds, stable with LOW REACTIVITY
- Alkenes-has one "extra bond" which is less stable, these are SOMEWHAT REACTIVE
- Alkynes-the "extra bonds" are less stable which means these are QUIET REACTIVE
How to name organic halides
name like hydrocarbons with the halogen like a branch with suffix -O
How to name alcohols
- alcohol group is the highest priority
- number of carbons-#-ol
- if there is a higher priority group in the molecule the alcohol is named like a branch as a "hydroxy"
What are the different types of alcohols?
- 1o, primary alcohol
- 2o, secondary alcohol
- 3o, tertiary alcohol
how many carbons the carbon that contains the alcohol is bonded to
have a backbone made out of carbons only
heteroatoms in the backbone
examples of natural polyesters