Card Set Information
Chem Organic Chem
Different types of reactions, naming
What are the products and reactants of ADDITION reactions?
Molecule (alkene or alkyne) + X
HX ----> molecule
What is a hydrogenation reaction?
hydrogenation--hydrogen is added
What is halogenation?
halogenation--halogen is added
Describe substitution/what are the products and reactants?
large molecule (alkane or aromatic) + X
large molecX + XOther
Only one atom "switches"
Have a benzene ring
Only undergoes substitution, NOT ADDITION
What are the products and reactants of elimination?
molecule---->alkene/alkyne + little
Elimination: alkyl halides
react with a strong base (ie. OH
create double bonds
has a product of H and other (ie. HCl)
creates double bonds
has a product of H
Estification (products and reactants)
alcohol + carboxylic acid---->ester +H
How are esters named?
Alcohol is named like a branch
ie. ethyl propanoate
how are esters made?
attaching an alcohol and carboxylic acid together and removing H
O and attaching the two together where the OH and H were taken from
What are the two types of combustion reactions and what do they look like?
) + O
------> CO2(g) + H20(g)
C?H? (O?) + O2(g) ----> H2O(g) + (CO2(g) + CO(g) + C(s)
I) Ethane cracking-does not break smaller carbon molecules and does not break bonds
Makes ethane into ethene and H2
Making isomers by branching
Straight chain--->aromatic (burns better) + H2
How do you recognize a carboxylic acid?
It has a carboxyl group
A carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to an OH
How do you name carboxylic acids?
ie. pentanoic acid
Define organic and state exceptions
carbon containing molecules
Oxides of carbon (ie. CO(g) and CO2(g)
How do you name alkanes?
1) longest continuous chain of carbons (parent chain)
2) number the parent chain to give the branches the lowest possible numbers (if it is a tie, the alphabetically lower branch gets the smaller number)
3) name the branch alphabetically
4) name the parent chain
same molecular formula but different bonding
Properties of alkanes
any alkane with no ring
the bigger the homologous series the higher the boiling point, due to LDF
alkanes that contain a ring
each ring removes 2 hydrogen atoms
How do you name cycloalkanes
1) the ring is considered the parent chain as long as there are simple branches on it
2) in either case the # of carbons gets the prefix "cyclo"
have one or more double bonds
every double bond means 2 less H's
if there is only DB
How to name alkenes
suffix becomes -#-ene
*the double bond must be in the parent chain and gets the smallest # possible (of higher priority than branches)
have 1 or more triple bonds
(non cyclic with 1 triple bond)
name like alkenes but with the ending ___yne
How to name aromatics
in a molecule with simple branching the parent is "benzene"
in a molecule with complicated branching the benzene ring becomes a branch and is called "phenyl"
not aromatic, does not contain benzene
hydrocarbon has all single bonds
double of triple bonds
Units of unsaturation
compare to an alkene: every 2 H's missing=unit of unsaturation=one extra bond OR ring
takes large hydrocarbon and makes it smaller
What is the reactivity of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes?
Alkanes-all single bonds, stable with LOW REACTIVITY
Alkenes-has one "extra bond" which is less stable, these are SOMEWHAT REACTIVE
Alkynes-the "extra bonds" are less stable which means these are QUIET REACTIVE
How to name organic halides
name like hydrocarbons with the halogen like a branch with suffix -O
How to name alcohols
alcohol group is the highest priority
number of carbons-#-ol
if there is a higher priority group in the molecule the alcohol is named like a branch as a "hydroxy"
What are the different types of alcohols?
, primary alcohol
, secondary alcohol
, tertiary alcohol
how many carbons the carbon that contains the alcohol is bonded to
have a backbone made out of carbons only
heteroatoms in the backbone
examples of natural polyesters