chapter 7 cell membrane.txt

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chapter 7 cell membrane.txt
2010-01-07 19:58:52
chapter 7

cell membrane
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  1. van leeuwengoek:
    observes cells
  2. Shwann:
    concludes that all animals are made up of cells
  3. Schleiden:
    concludes that all plants are made up of cells
  4. Rudolf virchow:
    cells come from existing cells
  5. Cell theory states :
    • -living things composed by cells
    • -Cells are basic units of life
    • -cells come from existing cells
  6. Eukaryotes:
    cells that contain nuclei (plants animal fungi and protists)
  7. Prokaryotes:
    cells that dont contain nuclei (bacteria)
  8. Nucleus:
    large membrane encoles structure that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA
  9. Nucleolus:
    where the assembly of ribosomes begins.
  10. Rough ER::
    synthesizes proteins that are released or exported from the cell. (Has ribosomes on surface)
  11. Smooth E R:
    contains collections od enzymes that perform specialized tasks including the synthesis of membrane lipids and detoxification of drugs
  12. Golgi aparatus:
    modifies sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the ER
  13. Ribosomes:
    small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
  14. Mitochondria:
    organells that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell use
  15. Lysosomes:
    small organelles filled with enzymes. They help in the digestion or breakdown of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.
  16. Vacuole:
    • store materials such as water salts proteins and carbohydrates
    • Cell wall: the wall that surrounds and protects the plant cell
  17. Plant cell:
    has a cell wall chloroplast and a vacuole and the animal cell has no wall and has centrioles
  18. Cell membrane and structrue:
    It controls what enters and leaves the cell.
  19. Composition:
    double layered sheet called lipid bilayer with protein molecules embedded in it.(Which work as channels to move material accros the cell membrane) The proteins have carbohydrates attached.(Which work as identification cards)
  20. Diffusion:
    process in which particles move from area of high concentration to an area that is less concentrated until there is equality of concentration
  21. Osmosis:
    diffusion of water through a selectively premeable membrane so that both sides reach equilibrium
  22. Active transport:
    • process in which material is moved against concentration
    • difference and requires energy. Small molecules may be carried out by energy pumps or proteins found in the cell membrane. Larger molecules need exocytosis and endocytosis
  23. Exocytosis:
    when the membrane of the vacuole surroundinf the material fuses with the cell membrane forcing the material out.
  24. Endocytosis:
    process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldingd or pockets of the cell membrane.
  25. Facilitated diffusion:
    glucose (only) move through protein channels in either direction.