The 2nd section of Lecture notes for Jone's Biology Classs
An Introduction to Cells
What is cell theory?
The idea that all life is cellular* and cells come from other cells
What are Cell Domains?
Über classification of all living things, based on specific structural features of the cell
List the properties of Prokarya Cells
Eubacteria (eu = true)
Small and Simple (compared to Eukaryotes)
Properties of Archae
Can live in extreme conditions
Properties of Eukaryotic Cells:
Membrane enclosed organelles
What are organelles?
Sub-cellular membranous structures with specialized functions
(Think of a Hospital with different wings for different things. The building doesn't do it, the people inside do!)
Why are Prokaryotes considered "Simple"?
Lack of internal organization (membrane enclosed organelle)
Most tend to be unicellular
What is Cytoplasm?
The "goo" inside the cell. (Sorta like Jell-o)
What is the Nucleoid?
Contains the genetic material within the nucleus (such as DNA & specific proteins)
1 large circular chromosome
What are Plasmids?
Small circles of DNA with a few non-essential genes
What are Ribosomes?
Awesome protein making machines!
What is the purpose of the Inclusion Bodies within the cytoplasm?
The storage of Nutrients!
What material is found inside the cytoplasm of a cell?
Why do Prokaryotes have extensive peripheral structure?
Because of they are unicellular and need to protect their insides from the environment
What is a Prokaryotic cell periphery composed of?
Glycocalyx / capsule
What is the name of internally folded plasma membrane?
What are the 4 main purposes of the Cell Wall?
Protects cell from environment
Helps retain water volume
Provides structural support for cell
Carbohydrates and Proteins
What is the Glycocalyx/ capsule?
Mucous slime on the outermost surface of a prokaryotic cell
Purpose of the Glycocalyx / capsule?
Protects from water loss
Aids in mobility (like a snail with slime)
What are the 3 main sections of Prokaryotic cells?
Cytoplasm / Cytosol
T/F The Pilus (Pili) is the only extra cellular appendage for prokaryotes.
There are also: Flagella and Sex Pili
Define Pilus (Pili):
Small "hair-like" covering over the surface of the cell
What are Flagella?
"Tail-like" structures necessary for mobility
(like the "screw" of a ship)
What are Sex Pili?
Hollow structure used to exchange plasmids between cells
Not always existent on the cell
T/F Sex Pili are not always existent on a cell
Animals, Plants, Fungi, and Protozoans are which type of cell?
T/F The inside of a cell is dynamic, changing.
TRUE, but the substance is more like jell-o than water
Why is the Nucleus soo important?
It is the defining feature of eukaryotic cells, where the chromosomes (DNA and Proteins) and all associated machinery are housed.
The ______ is the site of nucleic acid synthesis and processing
Nucleus (duh). This is the cells command and control center.
Why is the Nucleus like a computer OS?
It is the cell's command and control center
The nucleus is built for:
Security. Access to and from the nucleus is strictly controlled.
The Nuclear Envelope is made of
A double phospholipid bilayer, and a Perinuclear space
What is the Perinuclear space?
the area found between the two phospholipid bi-layers in the nuclear envelope
Define Nuclear Lamina:
Network of cytoskeletal components on the outside and inside of the nucleus.
Nuclear Pore Complex:
The gateway that all material must pass through to enter the nucleus.
T/F All proteins requiring transport to/from nucleus must have a Nuclear Localization Signal.
What is NLS?
A small (8-12 AA) sequence of amino acids present in proteins 1 degree structure (a code)
T/F The nucleus can trans-locate the position of pores where needed
Protein making machine
If protein is ________ ribosomes will make it
*folded then released to do it's job
If the protein has a function (inside/outside) an organelle, or requires (light/heavy) modification or is ________ by the cell, then this results in the protein having to enter the __________ System.
Inside, heavy, excreted, Endomembrane
series of organelles comprising the secretory pathway
Proteins are transported through the system via what?
(TRUE/FALSE) The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle of a cell
Primary site of (most) macromolecule synthesis
One continuous "chamber" folding upon itself to create more surface area
Has two sections: Smooth ER and Rough ER
Site of Lipid (membrane) Synthesis
Synthesis of some complex carbs (used to build Sugar Tags)
[!] Cellular Detoxification happens where? [!]
In the smooth ER
"Studded" with Ribosomes on it's surface- feeding proteins into the lumen of ER
Proteins requiring entrance into the ER carry a Signal Peptide Sequence (first 8 AA's)
What is the Lumen?
The inner space of a chamber
The capacity to do work or bring about change
What are the two types of Energy?
Potential and Kinetic Energy
Potential (Chemical) Energy is:
Kinetic Energy is:
Energy used in motion
The process of converting energy from one form to the other.
What are the 2 laws of Thermodynamics?
1. Law of Conservation
2. Law of Entrophy
Law of Conservation:
The amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
Mitochondria does not ______ energy. It changes it or transforms it.
Law of Entropy:
There can never be 100% transfer of energy from one system to another.
With every transfer of energy form there is a loss of usable energy
Complex are more (unstable/stable) then more simple systems.
The force driving all systems to a less complex state
*the universe is headed towards chaos*
Free Energy is:
the measurement of energy required for a reaction A-->B
require an input of energy to conduct
ex. Active Transport
Release of energy as a product of the reaction
ex. Passive Transport
Living systems require a ____ and _____ influx of energy.
Linking the energy release of a simple exogenic reaction to drive an endogenic process is called....?
An example of reaction coupling would be?
ATP stands for what?
The energy "currency" of life
the removal (hydrolysis) of the last phosphate releases energy
The input energy required to begin a reaction is called ______?
Energy of Activation (EA)
Biological macromolecules that catalyze (induce or speed up) reactions
(T/F) Enzymes raise the EA requirement for a reaction?
False! The LOWER the requirement
Why is the Active Site so important?
It is the substrate binding domain.
Provides a unique micro enviornment that is conclusive for the reaction!
Examples include: ph Difference, presence or absence of water, and charge
What is the Lock and Key Model and why is it incorrect?
The lock and key model suggests that the enzyme is the perfect shape for the substrate and they fit together like a jigsaw. This isn't correct because the enzyme is actually able to morph its shape to fit. Induced Fit Model
What is the Induced Fit Model?
Interaction with substrate induces the appropriate shape change
*the enzyme complex brings about the transition state of the reaction*
The _____________ brings about the transition state of the reaction in enzymes.
Enzyme Shape Complex
*This is the point where the reaction is about to happen. It's on the edge of the cliff. A-B. Not quite A and not quite B, but right inbetween.*