Biology Section 2

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gsmith66
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38749
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Biology Section 2
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2010-11-01 16:10:28
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Bio1610
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The 2nd section of Lecture notes for Jone's Biology Classs
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  1. An Introduction to Cells
  2. What is cell theory?
    The idea that all life is cellular* and cells come from other cells
  3. What are Cell Domains?
    Über classification of all living things, based on specific structural features of the cell
  4. List the properties of Prokarya Cells
    • Eubacteria (eu = true)
    • Small and Simple (compared to Eukaryotes)
  5. Properties of Archae
    Can live in extreme conditions
  6. Properties of Eukaryotic Cells:
    • Animal
    • Plant
    • Fungi
    • Protists
    • Larger
    • Very Complex
    • Membrane enclosed organelles
  7. What are organelles?
    • Sub-cellular membranous structures with specialized functions
    • (Think of a Hospital with different wings for different things. The building doesn't do it, the people inside do!)
  8. Why are Prokaryotes considered "Simple"?
    • Lack of internal organization (membrane enclosed organelle)
    • Most tend to be unicellular
  9. What is Cytoplasm?
    • The "goo" inside the cell. (Sorta like Jell-o)
  10. What is the Nucleoid?
    • Contains the genetic material within the nucleus (such as DNA & specific proteins)
    • 1 large circular chromosome
  11. What are Plasmids?
    Small circles of DNA with a few non-essential genes
  12. What are Ribosomes?
    Awesome protein making machines!
  13. What is the purpose of the Inclusion Bodies within the cytoplasm?
    The storage of Nutrients!
  14. What material is found inside the cytoplasm of a cell?
    • Nucleoid
    • Plasmids
    • Inclusion Body
    • Ribosomes
    • Chaperonins
  15. Why do Prokaryotes have extensive peripheral structure?
    Because of they are unicellular and need to protect their insides from the environment
  16. What is a Prokaryotic cell periphery composed of?
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Cell Wall
    • Glycocalyx / capsule
  17. What is the name of internally folded plasma membrane?
    Mesosomes
  18. What are the 4 main purposes of the Cell Wall?
    • Protects cell from environment
    • Helps retain water volume
    • Provides structural support for cell
    • Carbohydrates and Proteins
  19. What is the Glycocalyx/ capsule?
    Mucous slime on the outermost surface of a prokaryotic cell
  20. Purpose of the Glycocalyx / capsule?
    • Protects from water loss
    • Aids in mobility (like a snail with slime)
  21. What are the 3 main sections of Prokaryotic cells?
    • Cytoplasm / Cytosol
    • Cell Periphery
    • Extra-cellular Appendages
  22. T/F The Pilus (Pili) is the only extra cellular appendage for prokaryotes.
    • FALSE!
    • There are also: Flagella and Sex Pili
  23. Define Pilus (Pili):
    Small "hair-like" covering over the surface of the cell
  24. What are Flagella?
    • "Tail-like" structures necessary for mobility
    • (like the "screw" of a ship)
  25. What are Sex Pili?
    • Hollow structure used to exchange plasmids between cells
    • Not always existent on the cell
  26. T/F Sex Pili are not always existent on a cell
    True!
  27. Animals, Plants, Fungi, and Protozoans are which type of cell?
    Eukaryotic Cells
  28. T/F The inside of a cell is dynamic, changing.
    TRUE, but the substance is more like jell-o than water
  29. Why is the Nucleus soo important?
    It is the defining feature of eukaryotic cells, where the chromosomes (DNA and Proteins) and all associated machinery are housed.
  30. The ______ is the site of nucleic acid synthesis and processing
    Nucleus (duh). This is the cells command and control center.
  31. Why is the Nucleus like a computer OS?
    It is the cell's command and control center
  32. The nucleus is built for:
    Security. Access to and from the nucleus is strictly controlled.
  33. The Nuclear Envelope is made of
    A double phospholipid bilayer, and a Perinuclear space
  34. What is the Perinuclear space?
    the area found between the two phospholipid bi-layers in the nuclear envelope
  35. Define Nuclear Lamina:
    Network of cytoskeletal components on the outside and inside of the nucleus.
  36. Nuclear Pore Complex:
    The gateway that all material must pass through to enter the nucleus.
  37. T/F All proteins requiring transport to/from nucleus must have a Nuclear Localization Signal.
    True!
  38. What is NLS?
    A small (8-12 AA) sequence of amino acids present in proteins 1 degree structure (a code)
  39. T/F The nucleus can trans-locate the position of pores where needed
    TRUE!
  40. Ribosome:
    Protein making machine
  41. If protein is ________ ribosomes will make it
    • cytoplasmic
    • *folded then released to do it's job
  42. If the protein has a function (inside/outside) an organelle, or requires (light/heavy) modification or is ________ by the cell, then this results in the protein having to enter the __________ System.
    Inside, heavy, excreted, Endomembrane
  43. Endomembrane System:
    series of organelles comprising the secretory pathway
  44. Proteins are transported through the system via what?
    Transport Vesicles
  45. (TRUE/FALSE) The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle of a cell
    True!
  46. Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    • Primary site of (most) macromolecule synthesis
    • One continuous "chamber" folding upon itself to create more surface area
    • Has two sections: Smooth ER and Rough ER
  47. Smooth ER:
    • Site of Lipid (membrane) Synthesis
    • Synthesis of some complex carbs (used to build Sugar Tags)
  48. [!] Cellular Detoxification happens where? [!]
    In the smooth ER
  49. Rough ER:
    • "Studded" with Ribosomes on it's surface- feeding proteins into the lumen of ER
    • Proteins requiring entrance into the ER carry a Signal Peptide Sequence (first 8 AA's)
  50. What is the Lumen?
    The inner space of a chamber
  51. Energy-
    The capacity to do work or bring about change
  52. What are the two types of Energy?
    Potential and Kinetic Energy
  53. Potential (Chemical) Energy is:
    stored energy
  54. Kinetic Energy is:
    Energy used in motion
  55. Thermodynamics:
    The process of converting energy from one form to the other.
  56. What are the 2 laws of Thermodynamics?
    • 1. Law of Conservation
    • 2. Law of Entrophy
  57. Law of Conservation:
    The amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
  58. Mitochondria does not ______ energy. It changes it or transforms it.
    Create
  59. Law of Entropy:
    • There can never be 100% transfer of energy from one system to another.
    • With every transfer of energy form there is a loss of usable energy
  60. Complex are more (unstable/stable) then more simple systems.
    Unstable.
  61. Entropy:
    The force driving all systems to a less complex state

    *the universe is headed towards chaos*
  62. Free Energy is:
    the measurement of energy required for a reaction A-->B
  63. Endogenic Reactions
    • require an input of energy to conduct
    • NON-SPONTANEOUS
    • ex. Active Transport
  64. Exogenic Reaction
    • Release of energy as a product of the reaction
    • SPONTANEOUS
    • ex. Passive Transport
  65. Living systems require a ____ and _____ influx of energy.
    Large, constant
  66. Linking the energy release of a simple exogenic reaction to drive an endogenic process is called....?
    Reaction "Coupling"
  67. An example of reaction coupling would be?
    ATP Hydrolysis
  68. ATP stands for what?
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  69. ATP is:
    • The energy "currency" of life
    • the removal (hydrolysis) of the last phosphate releases energy
  70. The input energy required to begin a reaction is called ______?
    Energy of Activation (EA)
  71. Enzymes are:
    Biological macromolecules that catalyze (induce or speed up) reactions
  72. (T/F) Enzymes raise the EA requirement for a reaction?
    False! The LOWER the requirement
  73. Why is the Active Site so important?
    • It is the substrate binding domain.
    • Provides a unique micro enviornment that is conclusive for the reaction!
    • Examples include: ph Difference, presence or absence of water, and charge
  74. What is the Lock and Key Model and why is it incorrect?
    The lock and key model suggests that the enzyme is the perfect shape for the substrate and they fit together like a jigsaw. This isn't correct because the enzyme is actually able to morph its shape to fit. Induced Fit Model
  75. What is the Induced Fit Model?
    • Interaction with substrate induces the appropriate shape change
    • *the enzyme complex brings about the transition state of the reaction*
  76. The _____________ brings about the transition state of the reaction in enzymes.
    Enzyme Shape Complex

    *This is the point where the reaction is about to happen. It's on the edge of the cliff. A-B. Not quite A and not quite B, but right inbetween.*

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