PSYCHOLOGY

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Author:
cparks
ID:
38750
Filename:
PSYCHOLOGY
Updated:
2010-10-05 12:55:45
Tags:
TEST2
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Description:
LEARNING
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  1. unconditioned stimulus-UCS
    "unlearned naturally occurring", involuntary response
  2. unconditioned response-UCR
    involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus
  3. conditioned stimulus-CS
    conditioned stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus
  4. neutral stimulus-NS
    stimulus that has no effect on the desired response
  5. conditioned response-CR
    learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus
  6. extinction
    the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer
  7. reinforcer
    any event or object that when following a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again
  8. stimulus generalization
    the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
  9. stimulus discrimination
    the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
  10. primary reinforcer
    any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst or touch.
  11. secondary reinforcer
    any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens and gold stars
  12. classical conditioning
    learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other that the original. natural stimulus that normally produces it.
  13. punishment
    any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.
  14. punishment by application
    the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
  15. punishment by removal
    the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus
  16. schedules of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
  17. partial reinforcement effect
    the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
  18. continuous reinforcement
    the reinforcement of each and every correct response
  19. fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
  20. variable interval schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event
  21. fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the number of resposes required for reinforcement is always the same
  22. variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
  23. shaping
    the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior
  24. positive reinforcement
    addition, or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
  25. negative reinforcement
    removal, escape, or avoidance of unpleasant stimulus
  26. operant conditioning
    behavior is determined by its consequences (Skinner)

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