Chemistry Chapter 4

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Chemistry Chapter 4
2010-10-10 10:07:26
types bonds lewis structures

types of bonds and lewis structures
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  1. Interatomic chemical bonds
    • b/w atoms; very strong
    • ionic bonds
    • covalent bonds
    • metallic bonds
  2. Ionic Bonds
    • formed by the transfer of electrons
    • produce ions
    • form cation or anion
    • salts
  3. Covalent bond
    • sharing of electrons
    • form molecules
    • 1.single covalent bond
    • 2.double covalent bond
    • 3.triple covalent bond
    • 4.coordinate covalent bond
  4. Metallic
    • true metals
    • Cu, Ag, etc.
  5. Interatomic bonds
    • b/w molecules (weak)
    • 1.van der waal's forces
    • -London Dispersion forces
    • -dipole-dipole
    • 2.hydrogen bond (H-FON)
  6. Properties of Ionic compounds
    • 1.solid ionic crystles don't conduct electricity
    • 2.solid ionics in the molten state will conduct an electric current
    • 3.ionic solids have relitively high melting points
    • 4.ionic solids are brittle and easily broken
    • 5.ionic solids soluability depends on how strong the bond is b/w cation and anions- stronger the bond the harder to break; type of solvent used-like dissolves like
  7. endothermic
    absorbs energy
  8. exothermic
    releases energy
  9. ionization energy
    • the energy require to remove the least tightly held electron from the atom
    • the larger the atom the easier it is to take an electron off
  10. Electron affinity
    the energy released when an atom in its vapor states gains an electron
  11. Naming binary compounds
    Name cation+stem of anion+ide

    • ex.MgI2= magnesium iodide
    • KBr= potassium bromide
  12. Bond angle
    • desired angle is 109.5 degrees; tetrahedral
    • the affect of unbonded pairs decreases the bond angle
    • 104.5 is the accepted value; angular
    • 107 is another pyramid
  13. Angular shape
    if 2 atoms are bonded to the central atom the resulting molecule will be angular in shape a bond angle of 104.5 if you have 2 bonded electron pairs and 2 unbonded
  14. Pyramid Shape
    if you have 3 atoms bonded to a central atom the resulting molecule will be in the shape of a pyramid with a 107 degree angle
  15. Tetrahydren shape
    • if you have 4 atoms bonded to a central atom the resulting molecule will be in the shape of a tetrahydren w/ a bond angle of 109.5
    • if you have 4 bonded pairs 0 will be unbonded
  16. Resonance
    there maybe 2 or more lewis structures of a single compound
  17. characteristics of covalent bonding
    • 1.covalent compounds dont normally conduct an electric current
    • 2.they have relitively low melting and boiling points
    • 3.tend to be waxy type solids and relitivly soft
  18. Characteristics of metallics
    1. excellent conductors of heat and electricity- to be a conductor you must have charged particles and must be free to move
  19. Look over naming colvant compounds
  20. Van der Waal's Forces
    1.London Dispusion force (LDF)
    • found b/w all molecules
    • if it werent for LDF you could push molecules together but they wouldnt stay that way
    • such as in cooling
  21. Van der Waal's Forces
    2. Dipole- Dipole
    • must have polar molecules
    • its an additional force of attraction
  22. Hydrogen Bonding
    • 1.H-FON
    • usually have high boiling points