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what are fallacies
arguments that seem to make sense. Conclusion isnt supported by the premises
make assumption about group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate(usually because it is too small). Stereotypes about ppl (*librarians are smart, *wealthy people are snobs)
Example of Hasty Generalization
My roommate said her philosophy class is hard, and the one im in is hard too. All philosophy classes must be hard.
Why is this a hasty generalization
She has only had experience with two, not enough to make generalization
What is Post Hoc (fasle cause)
Lucky sock fallacy
Assuming because B comes after A, A caused B. Saying one event caused another.
Example of Post Hoc (false cause)
Lucky Sock fallacy
I wore these socks, and the eagles won, therefore my socks, caused the eagles to win.
President Jones raised taxes and rate of crime went up. Jones is responsible for rise in crime
Why is the a Post hoc (false cause)
lucky sock fallacy (athletes)
Just because something came before something else doesnt mean it corrilated or caused the situation
What is Slippery Slope
Arguer claims sort of chain reaction, usually in some dire consequence will take place, not enough evidence for that assumption.
What is an example of Slippery Slope?
If i go out thursday night, i will drink. If I start drinking then i will start smoking pot, that will lead to smoking cocaine, and then i will die. So i shouldnt go out on thursday night
Why is this a Slippery Slope
If you dont do the first thing it will never lead to all the other bad things to happen
What is Weak Analogy?
Arguments between two or more objects, ideas or situations. Two things being compared arent really alike in a relevant respect.
Example of Weak Analogy
Guns are like hammers - they're both tools with metal parts could be used to kill someone, but yet we are allowed to use hammers. We should be allowed to use guns.
Appeal to Authority
Add strength to our arguments by referring to respected source or authorities and explaining their position on the issue being discussed. Try to get the reader to agree with us by impression of famous name, who really isnt an expert
Example of Appeal to Authority
War is bad because Brittney Spears said so
What is Ad Populum
Meaning the people. Arguers take advantage of the desire most people have to be liked and to fit in wit others uses desire to try get audience acceptance. Bandwagon
Example of Ad Populum
Gay marrige is immortal. 70% of Americans think so
Slavery is ok because most americans think so.
Attack against a person that has nothing to do with the argument.
Example of Ad Hominem
Andrea Dworkin has written several books arguing pornography harms women. But Dworkin is ugly so we shouldnt listen to her.
There are two choices, gives the impression one is right and one is wrong. When there are really more choices to the solution
Example of False Dichotomy
Caldwell Hall is in Bad shape. Either we tear it down and put up a new one or we continue to risk students safety.
What is I
What is O
A&O as well as E&I do that to each other
Controdict each other
A&E ARE....to each other
The are Contraries....THEY BOTH CANT BE TRUE. BUT THEY BOTH CAN BE FALSE. If both are false one can not figure the solution to te whole issue
I&O ARE....to each other
Subcontraries. They both cant be false. They both can be true
A&I and E&O
are subalternates. If universal is true they are easy to figure out
When is circle shaded
A: SHADE THE SUBJECT
Shade the middle
Put an X in the middle
Put an X in the Subject
- are p are q
- all d are p
- all d are q
- or all w are t
- all e are w
- all e are t
- all k are j
- all f are k
- all f and j
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