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What are High/Low systems also called?
Fixed and Variable
What are 4 different Air entrainment nebulizers?
- Face tent
- Aerosol mask
- Trach mask
How do you achieve a higer FIO2 with an air entrainment nebulizer?
Connect 2 or more devices together with a Wye Adapter
Under what circumstances should you connect 2 or more devices together for a PT?
If they have 60% or less FIO2 with a Ve of 10 L/min or less
When air entrainment devices can not provide enough O2, what should be used?
What is a blender and what does it do?
- Seperates pressurized air and O2 sources are input and the gases are mixed
- It allows precise control over FIO2 and total flow output
What is the blender prone to?
Inaccuracy and failure
How often should a blender be tested? with what device?
Once a shift with a O2 analyzer
What device is commonly used on children with croup?
What should the oxygen tent LPM be running at?
What is the best method for administration of controlled O2 to infants?
What should the minimum flow be to prevent buildup of CO2 on an oxyhood?
The temperature of gases provided to an infant in an O2 hood should be set to maintain?...
Neutral Thermal Enviornment NTE
What are enclosures that combine convection heating with supplemental O2?
What is used in emergency life support and uses a self inflating bag with a nonrebreathing valve to provide up to 100% O2?
Bag Valve Masks BVM
At what O2 pressures should hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) be used?
- Greater than 1 ATM
- Most conducted at 2-3 ATM
How are HBO's adminstered?
- Multiplace or Monoplace chambers
- Single can hold 1
- Multi can hold up to 12
What are 2 indications of when to use HBO?
- 1. Air embolism: air bubbles that reach the cerebral or cardiac circulation can cause severe damage and even death
- 2. Carbon monoxide poisoning: breathing 100% O2 takes 80 mins to remove COHb, with HBO it takes only 23 mins
What are the 2 mixtures for heliox or helium-oxygen therapy?
- 80/20 = 1.8 = most commonly used
- 70/30 = 1.7 = can provide extra O2 for hypoxemia
What are the guidelines for heliox?
- Heliox should be delievered to PTs via a tight-fitting nonrebreathing mask with high flow
- Always mixed with O2
- Can be prepared at bedside or used from a premixed cylinder
What are some heliox troubleshooting and hazards?
- A poor vehicle for aerosol transport
- Reduces the effectiveness of coughing
- Badly distorts the PTs voice
- Hypoxemia can be a problem
What are the 3 different types of oxygen analyzers?
What is the most common O2 analyzer used? what does it rely on to produce a flow?
- Electromechanical/electrochemical is the most commonly used
- Relies on a chemical reaction to produce a flow of electricity
What are the 2 types of electromechanical O2 analyzers?
- Clark (polarographic)
- Galvanic Fuel Cell
What does Galvanic fuel cell rely on and what is the disadvantage?
- Relies on the chemical reaction that takes place when O2 combines with H2O
- Disadvantage: chemicals used in the fuel cell are continuously used and the cell must be periodically replaced
What does the Clark or polarographic rely on? disadvantage?
- Similiar to galvanic except a battery is used which speeds the reaction and causes a faster response time
- Disadvantage: similar to galvanic
What are the circumstances needed to calibrate?
- If exposing less then 60%, expose to 100% 1st then expose to 21%
- If exposing more then 60%, expose to 21% 1st then to 100%
What does the Physical oxygen analyzer do?
Measures gas that are paramagnetic (attached to a magnetic field) or diamagnetic (not attracted)
What does the physical analyzer consists of?
2 fixed magnets with a hollow dumbbell filled with nitrogen
What are some disadvantages of a physical analyzer?
- It cannot continuously measure a flowing gas sample
- The gas sample must be Anhydrous
- Very delicate and expesnive to repair
What does silica gel indicate?
- If gel is blue it can still absorb water vapor
- If its pink, gel is fully saturated and needs to be replaced
How does electrical analyzers work?
Use the principle of thermoconductivity to measure O2 % (a molecule of greater mass has a better ability to conduct heat)
What are the 4 temperature sensitive resistors known as in the electrical analyzers?
What are some disadvantages in electrical analyzers?
- Only analyzes static gas samples (samples not moving)
- Not suitable for a flammable anesthetic agent