What are the general assessments to do on a patient?
Identifying the correct patient, physical examination, and physical appearance.
What is the formula for BMI?
BMI = weight(kg)/height(cm)2
What is a vital sign? Is blood pressure a vital sign?
Vital signs are the measurement of the body's basic functions. Blood pressure is not one of them. The only vital signs of the body are: Temperature, pulse, and respiration.
Name some components of a patient's history.
Patient's history can include:
1. Known medical conditions;
4. Family history;
5. Prescribed meds;
6. Over the counter meds;
7. Illegal drugs;
8. Stress factors;
9. New symptoms;
10. Old symptoms;
11. Current concerns;
What is the New York Heart Association functional test? What are the classifications?
The NYHA functional classfication is a functional and therapeutic classification used to prescribe the proper physical activity for a cardiac patient.
The classification has four classes:
Class I-No limitations; suffer no symptoms when doing normal activity.
Slight, mild limitation of activity; comfortable with rest or mild activity;
Marked limitation of activity; comfortable with rest only.
Patient limited to complete rest; Any activity causes discomfort; Symptoms occur even at rest;
Dyspnea. What are its causes?
"Air hunger" or SOB that is normal for that level of exertion.
COPD or Asthma
What is chest discomfort?
Sensation of pain, pressure or tightness in chest. The main cause is Ischemic (general term for organ) Heart Disease.
What is angina? What are the types?
Chest discomfort with the following characteristics:
radiation to arm, neck, and/or jaw;
a sqeezing, tightness, pressure sensation;
Typical exertional angina
Palpitations are defined as an awareness (or sensation) of an irregularity in cardiac pulsation, a throbbing or rapid or fluttering rhythm.
Syncope is defined as transient loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain. It usually results from cardiac or neurological conditions. Common causes of syncope include:
vasovagal syncope (the simple faint)
cardiac dysrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia
complete heart block
Types of syncope.
-Effort syncope is one of the defining events in patients with valvular aortic stenosis
-Vasovagal syncope usually occurs when the patient is physically or emotionally uncomfortable
Irritation somewhere in the upper or lower respiratory tract.
Peripheral edema (i.e., extensive amount of tissue fluid in peripheral body tissues) is most commonly the result of venous insufficiency. It is usually a late finding in patients with left ventricular failure, and signals the onset of right ventricular failure. On physical exam the patient has elevated jugular venous pressure.
Cyanosis and clubbing.
Peripheral cyanosis is a bluish color of the patient's fingers or toes as the result of decreased blood flow to the skin secondary to vasoconstriction. It is not associated with clubbing, and is commonly caused by shock or exposure to cold.
Central cyanosis involves the entire body. It is the result of abnormal saturation of venous blood during its pulmonary transit or right-to-left cardiac shunts. Fingers and toes are often clubbed -- that is, lateral and longitudinal curvature of the nails accompanied by soft tissue enlargement.
What are the components of physical examination?
Examination of pulse, and pulmonary auscultation.
What are the characteristics of pulmonary auscultation?
Frequency, intensity, quality, and duration.
Adventitious sounds are sounds that are heard over and above the normal or abnormal breath sounds. Adventitous means "extra" or "added".