Respiratory System

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heplac
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38874
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Respiratory System
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2010-10-03 14:52:06
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chapter 22 Respiratory System
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  1. What is the function of the respiratory system?
    Is to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2
  2. The function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with O2and dispose of CO2, collectively this is called what?
    Respiration
  3. Three processes of respiration are?
    Pulmonary ventilation, External respiration and Internal respiration
  4. Air into and out of the lungs for gas exchange is what type of respiration?
    Pulmonary ventilation
  5. O2 from the lungs to the blood and CO2 from the blood to the lungs, is what type of respiration?
    External respiration
  6. Movement of O2 from the blood to the tissue cells and of CO2 from tissue cells to blood, is what type of respiration?
    Internal respiration
  7. What are the 7 parts of a Respiratory System?
    • Nose
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi and their smaller branches
    • The lungs ending in terminal air sacs, or alveoli
  8. Functionally the respiratory system consists of two zones, what are they?
    respiratory and conducting zone
  9. The respiratory zone is the actual site for this?
    Gas Exchange
  10. The respiratory zone is composed of what?
    respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, all microscopic structures.
  11. The conducting zone includes all respiratory passageways except where? (there are 4 places)
    respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, all microscopic structures.
  12. This respiratory zone cleanses, humidifies, and warms incoming air
    The Conducting Zone
  13. The is funnel-shaped and connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly (commonly called the throat)
    The Pharynx
  14. From superior to inferior, the pharynx is divided into three regions, what are they?
    Nasopharynx, oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
  15. The Nasopharynx is posterior to what, inferior to what, and superior to what?
    posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid bone, and superior to the level of the soft palate
  16. This is one of the three pharynx that serves only as an air passageway?
    The Nasopharynx
  17. The Oropharynx lies posterior to what and is continuous with it through an archway called what?
    posterior to the oral cavity, isthmus of the fauces
  18. Both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through this
    The Oropharynx
  19. Tonsils lie embedded in the mucosa of this
    the oropharyngeal
  20. The Laryngopharynx is a passageway for food and air and is lined with what?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  21. During swallowing, food has the "right of way," and air passage temporarily stops where?
    The Laryngopharynx
  22. This is also called the voice box
    The Larynx
  23. The Larynx has three functions, what are they?
    • provide a open airway
    • to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels
    • voice production, because it houses the vocal cords
  24. The framework of the larynx is made up of what?
    Nine hyaline cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments.
  25. The large, shield-shaped thyroid cartilage is formed by the fusion of two cartilage plates giving midline laryngeal prominence, is commonly called this?
    the Adam’s apple
  26. The ninth cartilage of the larynx is flexible, spoon-shaped, called what?
    Epiglottis
  27. This is composed of elastic cartilage and is almost entirely covered by a taste bud–containing mucosa
    The Epiglottis
  28. When only air is flowing into the larynx, the inlet to the larynx is closed and the free edge of the epiglottis projects downward. True or False
    False: the inlet of the larynx is open and projects upward.
  29. During swallowing, the larynx is pulled superiorly and the epiglottis tips to cover the laryngeal inlet. True or False
    True
  30. This keeps food out of the lower respiratory passages
    The Larynx - Epiglottis
  31. On each side laryngeal mucosa are the vocal ligaments, made of elastic fibers with folds. What are they?
    vocal folds, or true vocal cords
  32. When the vocal folds vibrate, what happens
    Sounds are produced as air rushes up from the lungs
  33. The vocal folds and the medial opening between them through which air passes are called what?
    the glottis
  34. Speech or voice production involves what?
    the intermittent release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis.
  35. This changes with the action of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    The length of the true vocal cords and the size of the glottis
  36. What happens as the length and tension of the vocal cords change?
    the pitch of the sound varies
  37. Generally, as the cords become more tense, the faster they vibrate. What happens to the pitch?
    the higher the pitch
  38. What happens when the glottis is wide or narrow?
    when wide we produce deep tones and narrows to a slit for high-pitched sounds.
  39. As a boy’s larynx enlarges during puberty, his true vocal cords become what? The cords vibrate more slowly to give deeper voice.
    longer and thicker
  40. What happens to the voice until enlarged true vocal cords are under control
    it cracks
  41. What happens to the voice until enlarged true vocal cords are under control
    it cracks
  42. What descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum?
    The trachea
  43. This ends by dividing into the two main bronchi at midthorax?
    The trachea or windpipe
  44. In humans, what are the dimentions of the trachea (which is very flexible and mobile)
    it is 10–12 cm (about 4 inches) long and 2 cm (3/4 inch) in diameter
  45. What does the tracheal wall consists of?
    the mucosa, submucosa, and adventitia layers
  46. What is the outer layer of the trachea called?
    the mucosa
  47. The outer layer of the trachea, the mucosa, has what type of tissue? This tissue is throughout most of the respiratory tract.
    pseudostratified epithelium
  48. The trachea divides into the right and left what?
    main (primary) bronchi
  49. Each bronchus runs obliquely in where?
    the mediastinum
  50. Each bronchus runs obliquely in the mediastinum and then into the medial depression also called what?
    Hilum
  51. What side of the main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the other side?
    The right side
  52. This side of the bronchus is the more common site for an inhaled foreign object to become lodged
    The right side
  53. By the time incoming air reaches the bronchi, what are the air's characteristics?
    it is warm, cleansed of most impurities, and saturated with water vapor
  54. In the lungs, each main bronchus subdivides into lobar (secondary) bronchi, how many on each side?
    three on the right and two on the left
  55. In the lungs, each main bronchus subdivides into lobar (secondary) bronchi (three on the right and two on the left each supplying what?
    one lung lobe
  56. Each bronchi branches out into smaller bronchioles, about how many times overall?
    23
  57. At the terminal bronchioles, which are the tiniest, are less than how big in diameter?
    0.5mm
  58. Another name for the bronchi or subdivisions?
    often called the bronchial or respiratory tree
  59. As the tubes in the bronchial tree becomes smaller, three structural changes occur:
    Support structure changes, epithelium type changes and amount of smooth muscle increases
  60. As the conducting tubes in the bronchial tree becomes smaller, the cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage lacking what?
    supportive cartilage
  61. What type of fibers are found in the tube wall throughout the bronchial tree?
    elastic fibers
  62. The mucosal epithelium thins as it changes from pseudostratified columnar to what type of tissue and then to a another different type of tissue, in the terminal bronchioles.
    columnar and then to cuboidal
  63. Cilia and mucus-producing cells are minimal where?
    In the bronchioles
  64. The amount of smooth muscle in the tube walls increases as the passageways become smaller. true or false
    true
  65. The Bronchial Tree / Respiratory Zone is defined by the presence of what?
    thin-walled air sacs called alveoli (small cavity)
  66. The respiratory bronchioles lead into where?
    alveolar ducts
  67. The alveolar ducts lead into terminal clusters of alveoli called what?
    alveolar sacs
  68. Gas-filled alveoli in the lungs account for most of the lung volume for easy gas exchange. About how many gas filled alveoli are there?
    300 million or so
  69. The alveoli are surrounded by what type of fibers?
    fine elastic fibers
  70. Open alveolar pores that connect adjacent alveoli allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized and for what other reason?
    provide alternate air routes to any alveoli whose bronchi have collapsed due to disease
  71. What crawls freely along the internal alveolar surfaces
    efficient alveolar macrophages
  72. Alveolar surfaces are usually sterile. Why is this surprising?
    since a huge numbers of infectious microorganisms are continuously carried into the alveoli
  73. Because the alveoli are "dead ends," aged and dead what must be prevented from accumulating in them.
    macrophages: a humban clears over 2 million alveolar macrophages per hour
  74. The paired lungs occupy how much of the thoracic cavity
    all of the thoracic cavity
  75. Each cone-shaped lung is suspended by what?
    the lung root
  76. The lungs form the continuously curving costal surface, why?
    lung surfaces lie in close contact with the ribs
  77. What is the area called at which pulmonary and systemic blood vessels enter and leave the lungs.
    The Hilum
  78. Each bronchus plunges into the hilum on its own side and begins to do what?
    branch
  79. Which lung is smaller?
    the left
  80. The left lung is smaller than the right, and is divided into how many lobes by the oblique fissure
    2; superior and inferior lobes
  81. How is the right lung partitioned?
    into superior, middle, and inferior
  82. On average, the lungs contain how many alveoli?
    about 300 million
  83. The lungs increases the respiratory surface for what?
    O2 and CO2 exchange
  84. The total area of the respiratory surface in a pair of lungs is about the same area as what? a tennis court
    a tennis court
  85. What carries systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs
    Pulmonary Arteries
  86. This carries freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
    Pulmonary Veins
  87. Pulmonary vessels are low-volume, high-pressure? true or false
    Fales: Pulmonary vessels are large-volume, low-pressure
  88. Bronchial arteries are small-volume, high-pressure input? true or false
    True
  89. All of the body’s blood passes through the lungs how often?
    about once each minute
  90. Because all of the body’s blood passes through the lungs about once each minute, the lung capillary endothelium is a good location for what and why?
    for enzymes since they act on materials in the blood
  91. Lungs and Nervous System are innervated by what 3 types of fibers?
    parasympathetic and sympathetic motor fibers, and visceral sensory fibers.
  92. Nerve fibers enter each lung through what?
    the pulmonary plexus on the lung root
  93. Ones the nerve fibers enter the lungs through the pulmonary plexus on the lung root then where do they go?
    along the bronchial tubes and blood vessels in the lungs.
  94. Parasympathetic fibers do what to the air tubes?
    constrict the air tubes
  95. Sympathetic nervous system does what to the air tubes?
    dilates air tubes
  96. Breathing is also referred to as what?
    pulmonary ventilation
  97. What is the period called when air flows into the lungs
    Inspiration
  98. What is the period called when gases exit the lungs
    expiration
  99. Inhalation: air flows in, the chest cavity does what and the diaphragm does what?
    Chest cavity expands and the diaphragm contracts, flattening out.
  100. Exhalation: Air flows out, the chest cavity does what and the diaphragm does what?
    Chest cavity decreases in volume and the diaphragm relaxes, returning to dome shape
  101. As the air enters into the bronchial tree, the resistance decreases or increases?
    increases
  102. As the air enters into the bronchial tree, the resistance increases since the size of the tubes gets smaller. What is this called?
    Airway Resistance
  103. The round shape of the alveoli increases the surface area and the tension, to increase the capacity. This is called what?
    Alveolar Surface Tension
  104. This is determined by the elasticity of the alveoli
    Lung Compliance
  105. This is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
    Tidal Volume (TV) 500ml male and female.
  106. This is the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalaltion?
    Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 3100ml male 1900ml female
  107. This is the amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
    Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 1200ml male 700ml female
  108. This is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation (connecting zone or dead zone)
    Residual Volume (RV) 1200ml males 1100ml femals
  109. What is the primary function of the lungs?
    Gas exchange
  110. Since gas exchange is the primary function of the lungs, what is actually happening?
    O2 from the environment is exchanged for CO2 from the body.
  111. Gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion between what?
    the alveoli and the capillaries.
  112. In the Alveolus:oxygen concentration is high, carbon dioxide concentration low? true or false
    True
  113. In the Capillary:oxygen concentration is high, and carbon dioxide concentration low? true or false
    False: Capillary:oxygen concentration low, carbon dioxide concentration high
  114. Who considers the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.
    Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
  115. Dalton's Law of Partial pressures is the Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. What is the pressure called exerted by each gas?
    its partial pressure
  116. What is the normal respiratiory rate?
    12 - 15 breaths per minute
  117. Where is respiration controlled?
    In medulla oblongata of the brain
  118. The medulla oblongata of brain sends out impulses to diaphragm and external intercostals (causing contraction) during what pulmonary ventilation?
    Inspiration
  119. The medulla oblongata of brain stops sending impulses to those muscles (muscles relax) during what pulmonary ventilation?
    Expiration
  120. CO2 and H+ can directly effect the respiratory center's ability to increases the rate and depth of breathing. True or false
    true
  121. Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are Sensitive to oxygen levels in blood.When levels decrease, impulses are sent to respiratory center, the Respiratory center then increases rate and depth of breathing
    Indirectly responsive to O2
  122. What is it called when exchange of gas between air in alveoli and blood?
    External respiration
  123. Gases exert pressure. true or false
    true
  124. Gas exchange in the body is measured by the amount of pressure each gas in a mixture exerts. What is this pressure called?
    Partial pressure
  125. Partial pressure is the amount of pressure each gas in a mixture exerts. How is it symbolized?
    Pco2 and Po2
  126. Blood in pulmonary capillaries has a lower Pco2 than atmospheric air. true or false
    False: Blood in pulmonary capillaries has a higher Pco2 than atmospheric air
  127. Carbon dioxide generated in tissue is transported in blood. Most transported in the form of type of what?
    bicarbonate ions
  128. Carbon dioxide generated in tissue is transported in blood. Most transported in the form of bicarbonate ions but some are transported how?
    dissolved molecular CO2
  129. Is an increase in the rate and depth of breathing that exceeds the body's need to remove CO2
    Hyperventilation.
  130. This is an insufficient ventilation in relation to metabolic needs, causing CO2 retention
    Hypoventilation
  131. Sore throat, high fever, white patches
    "strep throat" Streptococcus pyogenes

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