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2010-10-01 03:26:25

pnb 2264 practical
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  1. Exercise 1: Identify different types of epithelial cells
    simple squamous epithelium (or skin)
    stratified squamous epithelium
    (1) simple squamous epithelium – lining blood vessels
    (2) stratified squamous epithelium -- lining the surface
    cuboidal epithelium and columnar epithelium
    (1) cuboidal epithelium -- lining glands
    (2) columnar epithelium
  2. Connective Tissue Proper:
    a.) Areolar connective tissue
    1. Nuclei
    2. Collagen fibers
    3. Ground substance
    4. Fibroblasts

    b.) Adipose tissue
    1. Nuclei
    2. Adipocytes (adipose cell)
    3. Cell membrane

    1. Nuclei
    2. Collagen fibers
    3. Fibroblasts

    Supportive Connective Tissues:
    a.) hyaline cartilage
    1. Lacuna
    2. extracellular matrix
    3. Chondrocytes
    4. Fibroblasts
    b.) bone
    1. Osteon (haversian system)
    2. Osteonic canal (haversian canal, central canal)
    3. Osteocytes
    4. Canaliculi
    5. Interstitial lamellae
  3. Exercise 4: Identify muscle tissues under the miscroscope
    a.) Skeletal muscle
    1. nuclei
    2. individual muscle cells
    3. striations
    b.) Cardiac muscle
    1. nuclei
    2. individual muscle cells
    3. intercalated discs
    4. striations
    c.) Smooth muscle
    1. nuclei
    2. individual muscle cells
  4. The Integumentary System
    subcutaneous tissue
    dermal papillae
    sweat gland
    sebaceous gland
    Pacinian corpuscle
    Tactile corpuscle
    free nerve ending
    hair follicle
    arrector pili
  5. Slide 1. Finger tip (touch corpuscles) – note
    keratinized layer
    subcutaneous layer
    Meissner’s corpuscles
    Pacinian corpuscles
  6. Slide 2. Sweat glands (axilla skin) – note the location of
    · gland
    · duct
    · pore
    · myoepithelial cells
  7. Slide 3. Human scalp – note
    · hair follicles
    · arrector pili muscle
    · sebaceous gland

  8. diaphysis, periosteum, epiphysis, compact bone, spongy bone, articular artilage, metaphysis, epiphyseal plate, yellow marrow, red marrow
  9. Articulations -- Knee Joint
    Knee Joint:
    1. Articular surfaces:
    · a) femur and tibia medial condyles
    · b) femur and tibia lateral condyles
    · c) femur patellar surface and patella

    2. Articular cartilage (composed of hyaline cartilage)

    3. Ligaments: These are more elastic than tendons, and help to prevent excessive movements at a joint. The cruciate ligaments provide anterior/posterior stabilization of the knee joint.

    4. Synovial membrane: Connective tissue membrane which functions to diminish friction in the joint. Very extensive in the knee joint.

    5. Bursae: These are flattened sacs of synovial membrane which enclose a little fluid (synovial). They serve to separate tissues (bone, muscle, tendon), reducing friction. The knee joint normally has twelve or thirteen bursae.

    6. Menisci: These are flattened fibro-cartilaginous discs interposed between the articular cartilage surfaces of the knee joint. They serve to absorb shock in the joint, to maintain the proper apposition of the condyles, and help prevent lateral dislocation.
  10. Muscles of Human Upper Body
    A. Head and Neck
    closes jaw (elevates mandible)

    closes jaw (elevates and retracts mandible)

    open mouth (lowers mandible), elevates & holds hyoid during speech and swallowing

    if one side is contracted, rotates/tilts head sideways– “obliques” skull – tilt same side/turn opposite side; if both sides contracted, draws head forward and down; flexes neck

    B. Back, Shoulder, and Chest
    elevates, depresses, and retracts scapula; both acting together, draw head dorsally (backward)

    abducts shoulder (humerus); (posterior deltoid-extension of shoulder; anterior deltoid flexes shoulder

    lateral rotation of shoulder (humerus); horizontal abduction of humerus [shoulder]

    Supraspinatus (deep)
    abduction of shoulder (humerus); stabilizes shoulder joint

    Latissimus dorsi
    adducts and extends shoulder (humerus); rotates shoulder (humerus), draws shoulder down and backward

    flexion, adduction and medial rotation of shoulder (humerus)
  11. C. Upper Arm (Brachium):
    *Biceps brachii
    flexes elbow (forearm); supination of forearm (radius/ulna) and shoulder (glenohumereal joint)

    flexes elbow

    flexes elbow

    *Triceps brachii
    extends elbow and shoulder (glenohumeral joint)

  12. D. Forearm:
    Flexor carpi ulnaris
    flexes wrist; acts with Extensor carpi ulnaris to adduct wrist

    Flexor carpi radialis
    flexes and abducts wrist

    Extensor carpi ulnaris
    extends and adducts wrist; acts with Flexor carpi ulnaris to adduct wrist

    Extensor carpi radialis longus;Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    extends and abducts wrist; acts with Flexor carpi radialis to abduct wrist

  13. A. Abdomen
    Rectus abdominus
    flex lumbar portion of vertebral column

    Quadratus lumborum (deep)
    acting together, extends spine at lumbar region; if singly, lateral flexion of spine; for gait (walking) lateral pelvic tilt ("hip hikers") maintains upright posture

    Erector Spinae
    Extend and lateral flexion of vertebral column.

    B. Pelvic/Femoral
    Gluteus maximus
    extension and lateral rotation of hip (femur)

    Gluteus medius
    abducts and medially rotates hip (femur); steadies pelvis

    Gluteus minimus
    abduction and medial rotation of hip

    Psoas major (deep)
    flexes hip (femur)

    flexes, abducts and laterally rotates hip; flexes knee

    Adductors (deep)A. longus, A. magnus
    adduction of hip
  14. C. Pelvic/Femoral (Quadriceps)
    *Rectus femoris
    flexes hip (femur); extends knee

    Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis
    extends knee

    D. Pelvic/Femoral (Hamstrings)
    extends hip (femur); flexes knee

    extends hip (femur); flexes knee

    *Biceps femoris (long head)
    extends and laterally rotates hip (femur); flexes knee

    *Biceps femoris (short head)
    flexes knee

  15. E. Lower Leg
    Tibialis anterior
    dorsiflexion and inversion of ankle (foot)

    plantar flexes ankle (foot); flexes knee

    plantar flexes ankle (foot), steadies leg when standing

  16. Differences between Human and Cat Muscles
    1. Pectoral group:
    a. Humans do not have the pectoantebrachialis and xiphihumeralis muscles.
    b. In humans, pectoralis major is much larger than pectoralis minor; in cats these two muscles are roughly of equal size.

    2. Trapezius group:

    The three trapezius muscles in the cat (clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius, and spinotrapezius) exist as a single muscle (trapezius ) in humans. However, the action of this muscle in humans is similar to that produced by the three muscles in the cat.

    3. Deltoid group:
    The three muscles which exist in the cat (acromiodeltoid, spinodeltoid, and clavodeltoid ) exist as one muscle (deltoid ) in man. Their actions are similar as well.
    Identification of these three groups is not difficult when one remembers that in the cat, eight muscles radiate from the clavicle and scapula: three in the trapezius group; three in the deltoid group; and lastly, the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles. First try to separate the muscles into their relative groups, then identify the individual muscles.
  17. Cat Muscle of the Upper Body (Ventral Side)
    A. Head and Neck

    Masseter (superficial)
    elevates mandibular ramus

    Mylohyoid (superficial)
    raises floor of mouth

    Sternomastoid (superficial)
    turns head

    Cleidomastoid (deep)
    turns head
  18. B. Thorax
    *Clavobrachialis (or Clavodeltoid)
    flexes forearm

    adducts forelimb

    Pectoralis major
    adducts forelimb

    Pectoralis minor
    adducts forelimb

    adducts forelimb
  19. C. Upper Arm
    Biceps brachii
    flexes forearm
  20. D. Forearm
    Flexor carpi radialis
    flexes wrist

    Palmaris longus
    flexes digits

    Flexor carpi ulnaris
    flexes digits
  21. Cat Muscle of the Upper Body (Dorsal Side)
    A. Neck
    draws scapula craniodorsal

    draws scapula dorsal

    draws scapula dorsal

    Splenius (deep)
    turns or raises head
  22. B. Thorax
    Latissimus dorsi
    pulls arm caudodorsal
  23. C. Shoulder
    *Clavobrachialis (or Clavodeltoid)
    flexes forearm

    flexes and rotates humerus

    flexes and rotates humerus

    Supraspinatus (deep)
    extends arm

    Infraspinatus (deep)
    rotates humerus outward
  24. D. Upper Arm
    Triceps brachii (lateral and long heads)
    extends forearm of humerus, of ulna

    Brachialis (deep)
    flexes forearm
  25. E. Forearm
    supinator of paw

    Extensor carpi radialis
    extends paw

    Extensor carpi ulnaris
    extends carpal joint