Chem Ch.4

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ballinbc14
ID:
38913
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Chem Ch.4
Updated:
2010-10-10 19:23:00
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Chem acids bases reactions aqueous solutions
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Notes and review for Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
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  1. What are the three types of aqueous reactions?
    • Precipitation reactions
    • Acid-base reactions
    • Oxidation-reduction reactions
  2. What tells you how many moles of a species are in a given volume of a solution?
    Molarity
  3. What is the symbol for Molarity?
    "M"
  4. What symbol around a given character is used to represent the molarity of a species in solution?
    • [ ]
    • for example: [A]=0.480 M
  5. What is the phrase used for molarity?
    moles per liter (mol/L)
  6. If a substance is 0.50 M in a given solution, how many moles of that substance are in a 2000 mLof that solution?
    1 mol
  7. If there is a relatively large amount of solute per liter, then the solution is...
    Concentrated
  8. When an ionic solid dissolves in water the cations and anions...
    separate from each other
  9. If the molarity of MgCl2 is 5M...what is the molarity of Cl- in the water when dissolved?
    10M because molarity Cl- = 2 X molarity MgCl2
  10. What do you call the solid that separates out of a mixed solution?
    Precipitate
  11. Equations that exclude spectator ions are called...
    net ionic equations
  12. what is the name given to the ions that take no place in a given reaction?
    spectator ions
  13. Lemons taste sour...are they acidic or basic?
    Acidic
  14. What color does litmus paper turn if a solution is acidic?
    Red
  15. Detergent is slippery...is it basic?
    Yes
  16. What color will a basic solution change litmus paper to?
    Blue
  17. What ion will an acid produce in water?
    H +
  18. What ion will bases produces in water?
    OH-
  19. How can you tell whether an acid or strong or weak?
    By how much of the possible H+ ions it ends up producing.
  20. Will a weak acid ionize completely in water?
    No
  21. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) ionizes completely in water...is it strong or weak?
    Strong
  22. Name the Strong Acids
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    • Hydrobromic acid (HBr)
    • Hydroiodic acid (HI)
    • Nitric acid (HNO3)
    • Perchloric acid (HClO4)
    • Sulfuric acid (HSO4)
  23. Name the strong bases
    • Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH)
    • Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
    • Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
    • Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]
    • Strontium Hydroxide [Sr(OH)2]
    • Barium Hydroxide [Ba(OH)2]
  24. Is a weak acid's ionic equation shown with a double arrow?
    Yes
  25. What does a double arrow in an ionic equation mean?
    Implies that the reaction does not go to completion, so there is still some of the reactants in the solution.
  26. How do weak bases produce OH- ions?
    By acquiring hydrogen atoms from the water and leaving behind hydroxide molecules.
  27. What is a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbon groups such as CH3 called?
    An Amine
  28. Amines are what type of compounds?
    Organic
  29. Is CH3NH2 an amine?
    Yes
  30. Do amines react differently than ammonia in water?
    No
  31. Is HCl a strong electrolyte?
    Yes
  32. What makes NaOH a strong electrolyte?
    The fact that it completely ionizes into OH- ions in water.
  33. Is Hydrofluoric acid a strong electrolyte?
    Nope
  34. When an acid and base of equal strength and atom amount are mixed, what is formed?
    Water
  35. What is the reaction called when an acid and base that are mixed form water?
    Neutralization
  36. To create a net ionic equation from a 2 step reaction you must...
    Cancel species that appear in both reaction steps
  37. What type of reaction occurs when a weak acid meets a strong base?
    A two step reaction
  38. What are the steps in the reaction between a weak acid and a strong base?
    • 1. A partial amount of H+ cations separate from the acid's anion
    • 2. These H+ cations then join with the base's OH- anion to neutralize and form water
  39. What will the overall equation look like between a weak acid and strong base?
    Weak acid (aq) + Hydroxide molecules (aq) ---> Weak acid's anion (aq) + Water (l)
  40. What are the steps in the reaction between a strong acid and weak base?
    • 1. Partial amount of the base takes H+ ions from water leaving OH- ions
    • 2. Then H+ ions from the strong acid neutralize the OH- ions left by the base
  41. What does the net ionic equation for a reaction between a strong acid an weak base look like?
    Hydride cation (aq) + Base (aq) ----> Base formula with one extra hydrogen atom making it a cation (aq)

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