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What are the three types of aqueous reactions?
What tells you how many moles of a species are in a given volume of a solution?
What is the symbol for Molarity?
What symbol around a given character is used to represent the molarity of a species in solution?
: [A]=0.480 M
What is the phrase used for molarity?
moles per liter (mol/L)
If a substance is 0.50 M in a given solution, how many moles of that substance are in a 2000 mLof that solution?
If there is a relatively large amount of solute per liter, then the solution is...
When an ionic solid dissolves in water the cations and anions...
separate from each other
If the molarity of MgCl
is 5M...what is the molarity of Cl
in the water when dissolved?
10M because molarity Cl
= 2 X molarity MgCl
What do you call the solid that separates out of a mixed solution?
Equations that exclude spectator ions are called...
net ionic equations
what is the name given to the ions that take no place in a given reaction?
Lemons taste sour...are they acidic or basic?
What color does litmus paper turn if a solution is acidic?
Detergent is slippery...is it basic?
What color will a basic solution change litmus paper to?
What ion will an acid produce in water?
What ion will bases produces in water?
How can you tell whether an acid or strong or weak?
By how much of the possible H
ions it ends up producing.
Will a weak acid ionize completely in water?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) ionizes completely in water...is it strong or weak?
Name the Strong Acids
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Hydrobromic acid (HBr)
Hydroiodic acid (HI)
Nitric acid (HNO
Perchloric acid (HClO
Sulfuric acid (HSO
Name the strong bases
Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH)
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)
Strontium Hydroxide [Sr(OH)
Barium Hydroxide [Ba(OH)
Is a weak acid's ionic equation shown with a double arrow?
What does a double arrow in an ionic equation mean?
Implies that the reaction does not go to completion, so there is still some of the reactants in the solution.
How do weak bases produce OH
By acquiring hydrogen atoms from the water and leaving behind hydroxide molecules.
What is a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbon groups such as CH
Amines are what type of compounds?
react differently than ammonia in water?
Is HCl a strong electrolyte?
What makes NaOH a strong electrolyte?
The fact that it completely ionizes into OH
ions in water.
Is Hydrofluoric acid a strong electrolyte?
When an acid and base of equal strength and atom amount are mixed, what is formed?
What is the reaction called when an acid and base that are mixed form water?
To create a net ionic equation from a 2 step reaction you must...
Cancel species that appear in both reaction steps
What type of reaction occurs when a weak acid meets a strong base?
A two step reaction
What are the steps in the reaction between a weak acid and a strong base?
1. A partial amount of H
cations separate from the acid's anion
2. These H
cations then join with the base's OH
anion to neutralize and form water
What will the overall equation look like between a weak acid and strong base?
Weak acid (aq) + Hydroxide molecules (aq) ---> Weak acid's anion (aq) + Water (l)
What are the steps in the reaction between a strong acid and weak base?
1. Partial amount of the base takes H
ions from water leaving OH
2. Then H
ions from the strong acid neutralize the OH- ions left by the base
What does the net ionic equation for a reaction between a strong acid an weak base look like?
Hydride cation (aq) + Base (aq) ----> Base formula with one extra hydrogen atom making it a cation (aq)
Notes and review for Reactions in Aqueous Solutions