APII Ch 21 Cardiovascular System UPDATED

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APII Ch 21 Cardiovascular System UPDATED
2010-10-02 18:54:11
APII Cardiovascular MGCCC

A&PII Chapter 21 Test 3 Vessels and Routes of Cardiovascular System, from notes
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  1. 5 basic parts of the vascular system
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
  2. Large muscular vessels that carry blood away from the heart
  3. branch from arteries and enter tissues, regulate amount of blood entering tissues
  4. How do arterioles regulate the amount of blood entering the tissues?
    vasodilation and vasoconstriction
  5. widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle in the vessels
  6. narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of smooth muscle in the vessel walls
  7. microscopic vessels that connect arterioles with the venules
  8. where are capillaries most numerous?
    where activity is highest
  9. purpose of capillaries
    to permit the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes between the blood and tissue cells
  10. collect blood from the capillaries and drain it into the veins
  11. large vessels into which the venules flow for return of blood to the heart
  12. open space of vessel through which blood flows
  13. how many major layers are found in a blood vessel?
    • 3
    • arteries have 2 additional lamina (membranes)
  14. 3 layers of a blood vessel (starting with innermost)
    • tunica interna (intima)
    • tunica media
    • tunica externa (adventitia)
  15. another name for the tunica interna
    tunica intima
  16. What is the tunica interna composed of?
    simple squamous epithelium and a basement membrane
  17. innermost layer of a blood vessel?
    tunica interna (intima)
  18. What additional layer do arteries have in the tunica interna?
    an elastic membrane - internal elastic lamina
  19. what is the tunica media made up of?
    a thick layer of smooth muscle
  20. what is the middle layer of a vessel called?
    tunica media
  21. what additional layer of the tunica media do arteries have?
    external elastic lamina
  22. outside layer of blood vessels
    tunica externa (adventitia)
  23. What is the tunica externa made up of?
    very tough layer of collagenous and elastic fibers
  24. another name for tunica externa?
    tunica adventitia
  25. what are capillaries composed of?
    only an inner lining of endothelium and a thin elastic basement membrane
  26. there is usually a ___________ _____________where the arterioles transition to capillaries
    precapillary sphincter
  27. only present in veins and prevent the backflow of blood
    • valves
    • semi-lunar in structure
  28. What do the smooth muscles of the precapillary sphinters in the arterioles regulate?
    the amount of blood entering most capillary beds - -the muscles especially
  29. where do capillary beds remain open virtually all the time (flow not regulated by precapillary sphincters)?
    the brain
  30. Movement of fluids between vascular and interstitial compartments occurs across ________ _________.
    capillary membranes
  31. Does fluid tend to move in or out of the arterial end of a capillary? by what means?
    fluid moves out of the plasma into the interstitial fluid by filtration
  32. Does fluid tend to move in or out of the venous end of a capillary? By what means?
    Fluid moves into the to the venous end from the interstitial compartment to the plasma

    through reabsorption
  33. Is all fluid filtered at one end of the capillary bed reabsorbed at the other end?
    No, fluid and protein not reabsorbed pass into the lymphatic system and eventually back into the cardiovascular system
  34. What sorts of materials that are filtered at one end of the capillary bed are not reabsorbed at the other end?
    fluids and proteins
  35. state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered, reabsorbed, and lymphatic pickup
    Starling's law of the capillaries
  36. The volume of blood in various parts of the cardiovascular system ________ __________.
    varies considerably
  37. percentage of total blood volume in the systemic veins and venules
  38. percentage of total blood volume in the systemic capillaries
  39. percentage of total blood volume in the arteries and arterioles
  40. percentage of total blood volume in the heart
  41. percentage of total blood volume in the pulmonary vessels
  42. Systemic veins are collectively called...
    blood reservoirs
  43. What function do blood reservoirs serve?
    blood storage
  44. process which causes blood to move to other parts of the body when the need arises
  45. in the event of hemorrhage, what do blood volume and pressure do?
  46. What do blood reservoirs do when a hemorrhage occurs?
    vasoconstriction causes the blood reservoirs to empty
  47. principle blood reservoirs of the body
    • veins of the skin
    • abdominal organs (liver, intestines, spleen are especially effective blood reservoirs)
  48. the largest blood reservoir
  49. vascular term used to describe the contraction period of the ventricles
  50. What term is used to describe the relaxation period of the ventricles?
  51. What happens to the arteries during systole?
    they expand
  52. what happens in the arteries during diastole to assist in pushing the blood away from the heart?
    the arteries recoil
  53. What causes the pulse?
    the alternation between the expansion and recoil of the arteries after each systole of the left ventricle creates a traveling pressure wave
  54. the arteries expand during systole and recoil during diastole
  55. What 2 instruments are used in taking blood pressure measurements?
    stethoscope and sphygmomanometer
  56. What does one listen for when taking a blood pressure measurement?
    Korotkoff sounds
  57. What range would one expect to hear Korotkoff sounds?
    thoughout the blood pressure range
  58. How is measured blood pressure expressed
    systolic over diastolic
  59. normal blood pressure
  60. blood pressure and velocity are highest in the _________
  61. Why are blood pressure and velocity lowest in the capillaries?
    a dramatic collective increase in cross-sectional area within the capillaries
  62. what is the cross-sectional area of a vessel
    space inside the vessel
  63. is blood pressure lower in the capillaries than in the arteries?

    • The pressure of arterial blood is largely dissipated when the blood enters the capillaries. Capillaries are tiny vessels with a diameter just about that of a red blood cell (7.5 µm). Although the diameter of a single capillary is quite small, the number of capillaries supplied by a single arteriole is so great that the total cross-sectional area available for the flow of blood is increased. Therefore, the pressure of the blood as it enters the capillaries decreases.
  64. Blood flowing slowest where the cross-sectional area is highest can be compared to what?
    • a river
    • it flows more slowly as it becomes wider
  65. What increases every time a blood vessel branches?
    cross-sectional area
  66. once a capillary bed is crossed, what happens to the cross-sectional area and velocity?
    the cross-sectional area decreases as the vessels merge and velocity again increases
  67. junction where two vessels split
  68. junction where 2 vessels unite
  69. what useful purpose do anastomoses serve?
    provide alternate routes for blood
  70. term used to describe an alternate route of circulation involving anastomoses
    collateral circulation
  71. What are arteries that do not anastomose called?
    end arteries
  72. What is an example of an end artery?
    coronary arteries
  73. Where is blood velocity highest?
    larger diameter vessels
  74. Where is blood velocity lowest?
  75. refers to the amount of blood that passes through a vessel in a given period of time
    blood flow
  76. what determines the rate of blood flow?
    blood pressure and resistance
  77. the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels
    blood pressure
  78. blood flows from regions of ________ blood pressure to regions of _________ blood pressure.
    higher, lower
  79. blood pressure differences are related to ___________
  80. the opposition to blood flow as a result of friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels
  81. Resistance increases with.....
    • viscosity
    • blood vessel length
    • decreasing blood vessel diameter
  82. primary cause of blood flow resistance
    friction between blood and the walls of the blood vessels
  83. blood pressure is considerably ________ in veins than in arteries
  84. Why are one way valves so important in the veins?
    to prevent back flow since the pressure is considerably lower in the veins than in the arteries
  85. venous valves are most important in the...
    distal extremities
  86. What structures outside of the cardiovascular system are important in moving blood through the veins?
    skeletal muscles

    their action helps force blood through the veins
  87. How is the pressure gradient for systemic circulation determined?
    it's the difference between the pressure in the aorta and the pressure in the vena cava
  88. Is the pressure gradient in the vena cava ever zero?
    no, pressure in the vena cava is low, but there is alway pressure
  89. where is the cardiovascular center?
  90. function of the cardiovascular center
    influences heart rate and exercises vasomotor control over the diameters of blood vessels
  91. term for the cardiovascular center's influence over the diameter of blood vessels
    vasomotor control
  92. the vasomotor system is acted upon by the _____________ nervous system
    autonomic nervous system
  93. the sympathetic nervous system __________the blood vessels, which makes blood vessels _________, which __________ blood pressure
    • constricts
    • smaller
    • increases
  94. the parasympathetic nervous system ______________the blood vessels, which makes the blood vessels _____________, which _________ blood pressure
    • dilates
    • larger
    • lowers
  95. How does the vasomotor system cause peripheral resistance to increase?
    by constricting the arterioles and the precapillary sphincters through vasoconstriction
  96. How many sources provide input to the cardiovascular center?
  97. What are the 4 sources that provide input to the cardiovascular center?
    • higher brain centers (cerebral cortex, and hypothalamus)
    • proprioceptors
    • baroreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
  98. someone suddenly arising from recumbent position to standing position causes what?

    what causes this to occur?
    an immediate increase in heart rate

    proprioceptors in joints interpreted the change in body position and sent message to the CV center
  99. 2 higher brain centers that provide input into the CV center
    • hypothalamus
    • cerebral cortex
  100. 2 autonomic responses that influence the CV center
    • fight or flight
    • SLUD
  101. Where are proprioceptors located? What do they do?
    • joints
    • interpret body position
  102. recumbent position
    lying down
  103. blood pressure in the recumbent position is....
    lower than in the standing position
  104. If in the recumbent position, what might activate the proprioceptors?
    standing up
  105. Where are baroreceptors located?
    carotid artery and aorta
  106. how do baroreceptors function?
    sense pressure changes and influence the nervous system to adjust the pressures accordingly
  107. where are chemoreceptors located?
    in the carotid and aortic arteries
  108. what do chemoreceptors do?
    monitor levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions (pH)
  109. Due to chemoreceptors, an increase in carbon dioxide would result in.....
    an increase in blood pressure
  110. 3 intrinsic chemicals in the blood that can influence blood pressure
    • epinephrine (increases rate and force of heart contractions)
    • antidiuretic hormone (vasoconstriction in the kidneys)
    • histamine (vasodilation)
  111. intrinsic
    found within

    Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts.
  112. 2 main circulatory routes in the body
    • systemic
    • pulmonary
  113. hepatic portal is part of the....
    systemic route
  114. what organs does the hepatic portal originate from?
    • stomach
    • intestines
    • spleen
  115. where does the hepatic portal system cary nutrient rich venous blood to?
    the liver
  116. 2 arterial components of the pulmonary route
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmonary arteries (left and right)
  117. how many pulmonary veins are there?
    4 (2 per lung)
  118. What is the largest artery in the body?
  119. 5 portions of the aorta
    • ascending aorta
    • arch of the aorta
    • descending aorta
    • thoracic aorta
    • abdominal (dorsal) aorta
  120. 10 major arteries that branch off the directly from the aorta in sequence
    • coronary
    • brachiocephalic (right only)
    • left common carotid (left only)
    • left subclavian (left only)
    • celiac trunk
    • superior mesenteric
    • renal arteries
    • gonadal
    • inferior mesenteric
    • iliac
  121. How many brachiocephalic arteries are there?
    1 (on rt side of body only)
  122. 3 arteries that form at, or close to, the terminus of the brachiocephalic artery?
    • common carotid
    • right subclavian
    • vertebral
  123. Name in sequence 4 major arteries leading from the subclavian arteries to the hand
    • axillary (arm pit)
    • brachial (arm)
    • radial (thumb side)
    • ulnar (pinky side)
  124. common carotid arteries bifurcate (split) to form
    • external carotid
    • internal carotid
  125. what vascular structure do the vertebral arteries terminate in? what is it called where they come together?
    • basilar artery
    • an anastomosis
  126. vascular structure which basilar artery and internal carotid arteries feed into
    circle of Willis
  127. arteries that comprise the cephalic trunk
    • common hepatic
    • left gastric
    • splenic
  128. arteries that formed from the bifurcation of the dorsal (abdominal) aorta
    right and left iliac
  129. 5 major arteries leading from the dorsal (abdominal) aorta to the foot
    • iliac
    • femoral
    • popliteal
    • tibial
    • peroneal (fibular)
  130. Do veins generally have the same name as arteries?
  131. veins that accompany arteries and have the same names are called
    venae comitantes
  132. Is venous systemic blood really blue?
  133. largest vein in the body
    greater saphenous
  134. 2 major portions of the vena cava
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
  135. into what veins do the external jugular veins flow?
  136. subclavian veins meet the internal jugular veins to form__________
    brachiocephalic vein
  137. 5 major veins leading from the right hand to the brachiocephalic vein
    • cephalic
    • basilic
    • brachial
    • axillary
    • subclavian
  138. 6 major veins leading from the foot to the inferior vena cava
    • dorsal pedis
    • peroneal
    • tibial
    • popliteal
    • femoral
    • iliac
  139. How many major veins comprise the venous portal system? Name them.
    • 4
    • hepatic portal
    • gastric
    • splenic
    • mesenteric
  140. What is an aneurysm?
    weakened section of a vessel that balloons outward
  141. What is the danger of having an aneurysm?
    it may rupture causing exsanguination (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or stroke (cerebral arteries)
  142. What is medical term for stroke?
    cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  143. Medical term for high blood pressure?
  144. What does CAD stand for?
    Coronary artery diesease
  145. What is coronary artery disease (CAD)?
    insufficient blood supply to the myocardium caused by atherosclerosis
  146. Another term for atherosclerosis
  147. accumulates in the atherosclerotic blood vessels
    atherosclerotic plaque
  148. excessive plaque causes
    • blockages
    • it accumulates in the lumens of the coronary arteries and restricts blood flow
  149. coronary arterial narrowing in excess of 75% produces...
    angina pectoris
  150. what is angina pectoris
    ischemia (reduced blood flow) to coronary arteries causing chest pain
  151. nonsurgical treatments for CAD
    • smoking cessation
    • decrease dietary fats
    • antihypertensives (reduce blood pressure)
    • statins
    • nitroglycerin (vasodilator)
  152. acronyms for 2 surgical procedures for treating CAD
    • CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting)
    • PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty)
  153. CABG (coronary arterial bypass grafting) is
    portion of a blood vessel removed from another area of the body is grafted onto a coronary artery to bypass an obstruction
  154. What is PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty)? What is it often followed by?
    balloon catheter insertion into obstructed artery, balloon is inflated and often pulled across the obstruction flattening plaque against luminal wall.

    insertion of a mesh stent
  155. what blood pressure reading puts a person in hypertensive category?
  156. 3 causes of high BP
    • atherosclerosis
    • kidney disease
    • obesity
  157. type of hypertension associated with old age

    Is is bad?
    essential hypertension

  158. rare but sudden episode of severe coronary vasospasm, thought to be cause of adult sudden death, often associated with extreme stress and atherosclerosis
    Prinzmetal's variant
  159. thrombus (clot) forms typically in lower legs, sometimes carried to the lungs or heart
    deep vein thrombosis
  160. when a blood clot forms in lower leg it causes...
  161. 2 possible results of deep vein thrombosis
    • pulmonary embolism
    • coronary embolism
  162. another name for a clot
  163. thrombus that travels in the bloodsteam
  164. thrombus that travels to the lungs
    pulmonary embolism
  165. thrombus that travels to the coronary arteries
    coronary embolism
  166. treatments for embolic conditons
    fibrinolytics (break down clots)
  167. name a fibrinolytic
  168. another name for a faint
  169. what kind of response is syncope?
    parasympathetic (SLUD)
  170. ischemia
    decreased blood flow
  171. lack of oxygen
  172. syncope caused by...
    parasympathetic vasodilation and lowering of BP which results in temporary ischemia (decreased blood flow) of the arteries within the brain