What can result from a Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency?
What can result from a niacin (B3) deficiency?
Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death.
What is wernicke's encephalopathy?
Triad: Confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
results from B1 (thiamine) deficiency.
What is wernicke-korsakoff syndrome?
Wernicke's encephalopathy with persisten learning and memory deficits.
Where is folate mostly absorbed?
Deconjugated and absorbed mainly in jejunum.
What is the mechanism of disease for beriberi and wernicke-korsakoff syndrome?
Alcohol associated thiamine deficiency -> lack of TPP -> deficiency in all reactions that use TP as cofactor (CV and NS mostly).
What can folate deficiency cause?
Affects synthesis of DNA and RNA.
A functional deficiency of folate can lead from what vit deficiency, how?
B12 deficiency leads to overproduction and trapping of folate in inactive methyl form.
Explain the absorption of B12?
IF secreted by parietal cells bind B12 -> absorbed via specific receptor-mediated process in terminal ileum -> B12 transported across basolateral membrane and taken up by transcobalamin II -> transported into portal circulation.
What are two sensitive measurements for B12 deficiency?
Serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels.
How can you distinguish cobalamin and folate deficiencies?
Isolated folate deficiencies have hematopoietic involvement (depletion of folate pool - megaloblastic anemia) and no neurological signs.
Vomiting results in what (pH-wise), diarrhea?
Alkalosis - loss of gastric HCl
Acidosis - loss of bicarbonate.
What are three types of enzymes the pancreas releases and their functions?
Proteases: protein digestion
Lipasase: Fat digestion
a-amylase: Carbohydrate digestion.
What are the three phases of gastric secretion?
Cephalic: sight, taste, smell of food - vagus secretion of Ach