AP Biology- Chapter 54 and 55

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AP Biology- Chapter 54 and 55
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2010-10-01 20:13:48
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AP Biology
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Chapter 54 and 55, Community Ecology and Ecosystem Ecology
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  1. Community
    A group of populations of different species living close enough to interact
  2. Interspecitific Interactions
    Include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis
  3. Interspecific Competition
    • -/-
    • occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival
  4. Competitive Exclusion
    the concept that when populations of two similar species competes for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population
  5. Ecological Niches
    The sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
  6. Resource Partitioning
    The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
  7. Difference between Fundamental Niche and Realized Niche
    The fundamental niche is the entire area of an environment that a populatoin can inhabit even though the species may not live in the entire area. The realized niche is the actual area that a population inhabits
  8. Character Displacement
    When characteristics of two closely related spices diverge while they are living in close proximity
  9. Predation
    • +/-
    • interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey
  10. Convergent Evolution
    When unrelated organisms begin to look like each other
  11. Batesian Mimicry
    Harmless species that mimicsa harmful model
  12. Mullerian Mimicry
    Two or more species that look like each other
  13. Crypitic Coloration
    • "Camouflage"
    • Makes prey difficult to spot
  14. Aposematic Coloration
    • "Warning Coloration"
    • Uses bright colors to warn a predator of danger
    • ex. Poison Dart Frog
  15. Herbivory
    • +/-
    • Interaction in which organisms eats parts of plant or algae
  16. Symbiosis
    when individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
  17. Parasitism
    • A symbiotic interaction where a parasite derives nourishment from a host
    • ex. tapeworms(parasite) lives off of humans(host)
  18. Mutualism
    • +/+
    • a relationship where both species benefit
    • ex. bacteria living on the root nodules of legumes
  19. Commensalism
    • +/0
    • An interaction where one species benefits but neither helps or harms the other
  20. Species Diversity
    • the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the communtiy
    • greater diversity= greater stabiltiy
  21. Species Richness
    the number of different species in the community
  22. Relative Abundance
    the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
  23. Key Stone Species
    • Play a key role in the environment
    • Have a strong effect on the compostion of a community
    • Influence ecological role
    • exert inportant regulating effect on other species in a communtiy
    • not nessacarily the largest population
    • ex. Beavers change the flow of water from streams to standing ponds
  24. Ecological Succesion
    After a disturbance, the disturbed area may be colonised by a variety of species. which are gradually replaced by other species. which are inturn replaced by still other species. Can take years or decades
  25. Primary Succesion
    • Begains with a virtually lifeless are without soil, due to a volcanic eruption
    • 1.Bacteria come and make soil by decompostion of rock (prioneer species)
    • 2.Grasses then grow quickly in high sunlight
    • 3.Shrubs grow after which now allow for shade tolerant species to grow
    • 4.Trees mostly shade tolerant plants now
    • **The communtiy is now stable
  26. Secondary Succesion
    Exsisting community is cleared but the soild is still intact, usually due to fire
  27. What causes succesion?
    • Tolerance- early species are weedy and r-selective as well as tolerant to harsh environments
    • Faciliation and Inhibation- early species allow for haitat changes, change in soil pH, change in soil fertility, change in light levels(shade from trees). Allows other species to outcompete
  28. Climax Forests
    • Plant communtiy dominated by trees
    • Representing final stage of natural succession for a specific location. Has a stable plant community, remains essentially unchanged in species compostion as long as site remains undistribed, the species mix of climax forests is dependent on the abiotic factors of the region
  29. Disturbances of Natural Cycles
    • Disturbances are often necessary for community development and survival
    • -Release of nutrients
    • -Increases Biodiversity
    • -Increases baitats
    • -Rejuvenates communities
  30. Ecosystems
    • All the organisms in a communtiy plus the abiotic factors
    • Ecosystems are transformers of energy & processors of matter
    • Ecosystems are self-sustaining
    • Capture energy
    • Transfer energy
    • Cycle Nutrients
  31. Ecosystem Inputs
    • Energy- sun gives a constant input of energy -Energy flows through the ecosystem
    • Nutrients- Cycle around the ecosystem -Nutrients can ONLY cycle
  32. Energy Flow
    • Sunlight -> Producers -> Primary Consumers -> Secondary Consumers
    • **There is a loss of energy at all levels
  33. Phospherous Cycle (General Notes)
    • Never enters the atmosphere
    • Cycles between animals, plants, rocks, soil
    • Is passed by decompostion and waste
  34. Nitrogen Cycle (General Notes)
    • Can be in the atmosphere
    • Can't enter soil without help from bacteria and is put by into the air by bacteria
    • Plants require nitrogen
  35. Transpiration
    Water leaving plants through leaves and bark
  36. Effects of Deforestation
    • Nutrient run off in soil
    • Turns a forest to a desert
    • Ground water is not transpired so less precipition is created
    • 40x increase in water run off
    • 60x loss of nitrogen
    • 10x loss of calcium
  37. Repairing Deforestation
    • Greenbelt Movement
    • Planting trees to rebuild the forests of Kenya
    • Restoring a sustainable ecosystem
  38. Trophic Levels
    • the feeding relationships
    • start with energy from the sun
    • captured by plants, at the first level all chains. Aquatic and Terrestrial
    • Food chains usually go up only 4 or 5 levels at most, due to the inefficiency of energy transfer
    • All levels connect with decomposers
  39. Inefficiency of Energy Transfer
    • Loss of energy between levels of food chain
    • ex. Plants loss, 33% to cellular respiratoin, 50% to waste, only 17% moves to the next trophic level through growth
    • Energy is lost as the cost of daily living
    • usually only 10% is passed on
  40. Ecological Pyramid
    • loss of energy between levels of food chains
    • can feed fewer at each level- 10% less
  41. Humans in Food Chains
    • Dynamic of energy through ecosystems have important implications for human populations
    • Humans have a smaller ecological footprint as vegatarians

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