ch 7 axial skeletal system.txt

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Author:
rincrocci
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39014
Filename:
ch 7 axial skeletal system.txt
Updated:
2010-10-01 22:45:20
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axial
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axial skeleton
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  1. bones and location of axial skeleton
    bones around the longitudinal axis, consisting of skull bones, sternum, vertebral column, hyoid bone, auditory ossicles
  2. bones and location of appendicular skeleton
    bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the bones forming the girdles that connect to axial skeleton, consisting of PECTORAL girdle, PELVIC girdle, tibia, fibula, ulna, radius, humerus, femur, c(t)arpals, metac(t)arpals, phalanges
  3. types of bones
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  4. long bones
    femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius, phalanges
  5. short bones
    • cube shaped, nearly equal in length
    • ie: carpals, tarsals
  6. flat bones
    cranial, sternum, scapulae
  7. irregular bones
    vertebrae, hip bones, some facial bones, calcaneus
  8. bone general surface markings
    • depressions and openings: allow for blood vessles and nerves or form joints
    • processes: serve as attachment points for ligaments and tendons
  9. types of depressions and openings
    • fissure: narrow slit b/w adjacent parts of bones, ie superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone
    • foramen: opening thru which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass, ie optic foramen of the sphenoid bone
    • meatus: tubelike opening, ie external auditory meatus of the temporal lobe
  10. types of processes that form joints
    • condyle: large round protuberances at end of the bone, ie large condyle of the femur
    • facet: smooth flat articular surface, ie superior articular facet of a vertebra
    • head: round articular projection supported on the neck, ie head of the femur
  11. types of processs that form attachment points for connective tissue
    • epicondyle: projection ABOVE a condyle
    • head, ie medial epicondyle of the femur
    • crest: ridge or elongated projection, ie iliac crest of the hip bone
    • spinous process: sharp, slender projection, ie spinous process of the vertebra
    • tuberosity: large rounded roughened prjection, ie ischial tuberosity of the hip bone
  12. number of skull bones and types
    • 22 bones
    • 8 cranal bones forming the cranal cavity
    • 14 facial bones form the face
  13. cranal bones
    • 8 bones that form the cranial cavity:
    • 2 temporal bones
    • 2 parietal bones
    • frontal bone
    • occipital bone
    • sphenoid bone
    • ethmoid bone
  14. facial bones
    • 14 bones form the face:
    • 2 nasal bones
    • 2 maxillae
    • 2 zygomatic bones
    • 2 lacrimal
    • mandible
    • 2 palatine bones
    • 2 inferior nasal conchae
    • vomer
  15. cavities that the skull forms
    • cranial cavity
    • nasal cavity
    • paranasal sinuses
    • orbits (eye sockets)
    • small cavities involved in hearing and equil.
  16. sutures
    • fuse most skull bones together
    • squamous suture: b/w temporal and parietal bones
    • coronal suture: b/w frontal and parietal bones
    • lambdoid suture: b/w parietal and occipital bones
  17. styloid vs mastoid process
    styloid process is the 'sticking out' looking bone, and mastoid process is posterior to that, more of a rounded protrusion. all part of the temporal lobe
  18. nasal septum and broken nose
    • the nasal septum divides the interior of the nasal cavity into right and left sides
    • a broken nose, most of the time, refers to septal damage rather than the bones themselves
  19. paranasal sinuses
    • cavities w/in cranial and facial bones
    • secretions produced by the mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into the nasal cavity
  20. fontanels
    • areas of unossified tissue, at birth usually called 'soft spots'
    • eventually replaced w/bone & become sutures
  21. hyoid bone
    • doesn't articulate with any other bone
    • provides support and attachment for tongue, neck muscles and pharynx
    • helps keep larynx (voice box) open at all times
  22. vertabral column role and bones involved
    • curved to increase column strength and maintain balance
    • absorbs shock
    • 7 CERVICAL bones in the neck region
    • 12 THORACIC behind thoracic cavity
    • 5 LUMBAR support lower back
    • 1 sacrum, has five fused sacral vertebrae
    • 1 coccyx
  23. Conditions that involve change in vertebral column
    • kyphosis: extra curvature of the thoracic cavity - hunchback
    • lordosis: extra curvature of lumbar region - can be due to beer gut
    • scoliosis: lateral curvature - can look S shaped from the back
  24. FUNCTIONS of intervertebral discs
    • 1. forms strong joints
    • 2. permits movements
    • 3. absorbs vertical shock
  25. intervertebral discs consist of:
    • 1. vertebral arch
    • 2. several processes(points of attachment for muscles)
    • 3. a body
  26. cervical region
    • C1-C7
    • atlas is C1
    • axis is C2
  27. Thoracic Region
    • T1-T12
    • articulates w/the ribs
  28. Lumbar Region
    • L1-L5
    • provide attachment of large back muscles
  29. Sacrum
    • S1-S5
    • serves as a strong foundation for pelvic girdle
  30. Coccyx
    formed by fusion of 4 coccygeal vertebrae
  31. thoracic cages formed by:
    • sternum
    • ribs
    • costal cartilages
    • thoracic vertebrae
  32. FUNCTION of thoracic cage
    plays a role in breathing

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