CDEV 1-2

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stewartmart123
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39027
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CDEV 1-2
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2010-10-02 00:14:18
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development
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Chapters 1-2
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  1. Behaviorism
    Watson's view that science must study observable behavior only and investigate relationships between stimuli and responses
  2. maturation
    the unfolding of genetically determined traits, structures, and fuctions
  3. psychosexual development
    the process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development
  4. stage theory
    a theory of development that views changes as occurring in distinct periods of life.
  5. psychosocial development
    erikson's theory, which emphasizes the importance of social relationships and conscious choice throughout eight stages of development
  6. life crisis
    an internal conflict that attends each stage of psychosocial development
  7. identity crisis
    according to Erikson, a period of inner conflict during which one examines one's values and makes decisions about one's life roles.
  8. classical conditioning
    a simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to bring forth the response usually brought forth by a second stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus.
  9. operant conditioning
    a simpe form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior that is reinforced.
  10. reinforcement
    the process of providing stimuli that follow responses and increase the frequency of those responses.
  11. positive reinforcer
    a reinforcer that when applied increases the frequency of a response
  12. negative reinforcer
    a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of a response
  13. extinction
    the eventual cessation of a conditioned response in the absence of reinforcement
  14. social cognitive theory
    a cognitively oriented learning hteory that emphasizes observational learning
  15. cognitive development theory
    the stage theory that holds that the child's abilities to mentally represent the world and solve problems develop due to the interaction of experience and maturation of neurological structures.
  16. scheme
    an action pattern or mental structure that is involved in the acquisition and organization of knowledge
  17. adaptation
    the interaction between the organism and the environment consisting of assimilation and accommodation.
  18. assimilation
    the incorporation of new events or knowledge into existing shemes
  19. accommodation
    the modification of exisiting schemes to permit the incorporation of new events or knowledge
  20. equilibration
    the making of an equilibrium or balance between assimilation and accomodation
  21. ecology
    the branch of biology that deals with the relationships between living organisms and their environment
  22. ecological systems theory
    the view that explains child development in terms of the reciprocal influences between children and environmental settings
  23. microsystem
    the immediate settings with which the child interacts, such as the home, the school, and peers
  24. mesosystem
    the interlocking settings that influence the child such as the interaction of the school and the larger community
  25. exosystem
    community insitutions and settings that indirectly influence the child such as the school board and the parent's work places.
  26. macrosystem
    the basic institutions and ideologies that influence the child
  27. hronosystem
    the environmental changes that occur over time and have an effect on the child
  28. zone of proximal developmen
    vygotsky's term for the range of tasks a child can carry out with the help of someone who is more skilled
  29. scaffolding
    vygotsky's term for temporary cognitive structures or methods of solving problems that help the child as he or she learns to function independently
  30. empirical
    based on observation and experimentation
  31. naturalistic observation
    a method of scientific observation in which children and others are observed in their natural environments.
  32. case study
    a carefully drawn account of the behavior of an individual
  33. experimental group
    a group made up of subjects who receive a treatment in an experiment
  34. longitudinal research
    the study of developmental processes by taking repeated measures of the same group of participants at various stages of developent
  35. cross-sectional research t
    the study of developmental processes by taking measures of participants of different age groups at the same time.
  36. cohort effect
    similarities in behavior among a group of peers that stem from the fact that group meembrs are approximately the same age
  37. cross-sequential research
    an approach that combines the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods by following individuals of different ages for abbreviated periods of time
  38. time lag comparison
    the study of developmental processes by taking measures of participants in different groups whe n they are the same age
  39. heredity
    the transmission of traits and characteristics from parent to child by means of genes
  40. genetics
    the branch of biology that studies heredity.
  41. chromosomes
    rod-shaed structures composed of genes that are found within the nuclei of cells
  42. gene
    the basic unit of heredity.
  43. polygenic
    resulting from many genes
  44. mitosis
    the form of cell division in which each chromosome splits lengthwise to double in number. half of each chromosome combines with the appropriate bases to regain the original form and then moves to the new cell
  45. mutation
    a sudden variation in a heritable characteristic as by an accident that affects the composition of genes
  46. meiosis
    the form of cell division in which each pair of chromosomes splits so that one member of each pair moves to the new cell. as a result, each new cell has 23 chromosomes.
  47. autosome
    a member of a pair of chromosomes with the exception of sex chromosomes
  48. sex chromosomes
    a chromosome in the shape of a Y or X that determines the sex of the child
  49. Monozygotic twins
    twins that dervie from a single zygote that has split into two identical twin
  50. dizygotic twins
    twins that derives from zygotes, fraternal twins
  51. ovulation
    the releasing of an ovum from an ovary
  52. allele
    a member of a pair of genes
  53. homozygous
    having two identical alleles
  54. heterozygous
    having two different alleles
  55. carrier
    a person who carries and transmits a recessive gene but does not exhibit its effect.
  56. multifactorial problems
    problems that stem from the interaction of heredity and environmental factors
  57. down syndrome
    an extra chromosome in the 21st pair
  58. sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities
    abnormalities that are transmitted from generation to generation and carried by a sex chromosome
  59. klinefelter sndrome
    a chromosomal disorder found among males that is caused by an extra x sex chromosome and that is characterized by infertility and mild mental retardation
  60. turner syndrome
    a chromosomal disorder found amont females that is caused by having a single x sex chromosome and is characterized by infertility.
  61. PKU
    a genetic abnormality in which phenyalalanine builds up in the body and causes mental retardation
  62. huntington's disease
    a fatal genetic degenerative disorder whose onset is in middle age
  63. sickle-cell anemia
    a genetic disorder that decreases the blood's capacity to carry oxygen
  64. cystic fibrosis
    a fatal genetic disorder in which mucus obstructs the lungs and pancreas.
  65. hemophilia
    a genetic disorder in which blood does not clot properly
  66. sex-linked genetic abnnormalities
    abnormalities resulting from genes that are found on the x sex chromosome. they are more likely to be shown by male offspring that female
  67. amniocentesis
    a procedure for drawing and examining fetal cells sloughed off into amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders.
  68. chorionice villus sampling
    a method for the prenatal detection of genetic abnormalities that samples the membrane enveloping the amniotic sac and fetus
  69. AFP
    a blood test that assesses the mother's blood evel of alpha-feroprotein, a substance that is linked with fetal neral tube defects
  70. canalization
    the tendency of growth rates to return to genetically determined patterns after undergoing environmentally induced change
  71. niche-picking
    choosing environement that allow us to develp inherited preferences
  72. endometrium
    the inner lining of the uterus
  73. spontaneous abortion
    unplanned, accidental abortion
  74. motiliy
    self-propulsion
  75. pelvic inflammatory disease
    an infection of the abdominal region that may have various causes and that may impair fertility
  76. endometriosis
    infammation of endometrial tissues sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation.
  77. artificial insemination
    injection of sperm into the uterus to fertilize an ovu
  78. in vitro fertilization
    fertilization of an ovum in a laboratory dish
  79. donor IVF
    the transfer of a donor's ovum, fertilized in a laboratory dish, to the uterus of another woman

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