Watson's view that science must study observable behavior only and investigate relationships between stimuli and responses
the unfolding of genetically determined traits, structures, and fuctions
the process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development
a theory of development that views changes as occurring in distinct periods of life.
erikson's theory, which emphasizes the importance of social relationships and conscious choice throughout eight stages of development
an internal conflict that attends each stage of psychosocial development
according to Erikson, a period of inner conflict during which one examines one's values and makes decisions about one's life roles.
a simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to bring forth the response usually brought forth by a second stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus.
a simpe form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior that is reinforced.
the process of providing stimuli that follow responses and increase the frequency of those responses.
a reinforcer that when applied increases the frequency of a response
a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of a response
the eventual cessation of a conditioned response in the absence of reinforcement
social cognitive theory
a cognitively oriented learning hteory that emphasizes observational learning
cognitive development theory
the stage theory that holds that the child's abilities to mentally represent the world and solve problems develop due to the interaction of experience and maturation of neurological structures.
an action pattern or mental structure that is involved in the acquisition and organization of knowledge
the interaction between the organism and the environment consisting of assimilation and accommodation.
the incorporation of new events or knowledge into existing shemes
the modification of exisiting schemes to permit the incorporation of new events or knowledge
the making of an equilibrium or balance between assimilation and accomodation
the branch of biology that deals with the relationships between living organisms and their environment
ecological systems theory
the view that explains child development in terms of the reciprocal influences between children and environmental settings
the immediate settings with which the child interacts, such as the home, the school, and peers
the interlocking settings that influence the child such as the interaction of the school and the larger community
community insitutions and settings that indirectly influence the child such as the school board and the parent's work places.
the basic institutions and ideologies that influence the child
the environmental changes that occur over time and have an effect on the child
zone of proximal developmen
vygotsky's term for the range of tasks a child can carry out with the help of someone who is more skilled
vygotsky's term for temporary cognitive structures or methods of solving problems that help the child as he or she learns to function independently
based on observation and experimentation
a method of scientific observation in which children and others are observed in their natural environments.
a carefully drawn account of the behavior of an individual
a group made up of subjects who receive a treatment in an experiment
the study of developmental processes by taking repeated measures of the same group of participants at various stages of developent
cross-sectional research t
the study of developmental processes by taking measures of participants of different age groups at the same time.
similarities in behavior among a group of peers that stem from the fact that group meembrs are approximately the same age
an approach that combines the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods by following individuals of different ages for abbreviated periods of time
time lag comparison
the study of developmental processes by taking measures of participants in different groups whe n they are the same age
the transmission of traits and characteristics from parent to child by means of genes
the branch of biology that studies heredity.
rod-shaed structures composed of genes that are found within the nuclei of cells
the basic unit of heredity.
resulting from many genes
the form of cell division in which each chromosome splits lengthwise to double in number. half of each chromosome combines with the appropriate bases to regain the original form and then moves to the new cell
a sudden variation in a heritable characteristic as by an accident that affects the composition of genes
the form of cell division in which each pair of chromosomes splits so that one member of each pair moves to the new cell. as a result, each new cell has 23 chromosomes.
a member of a pair of chromosomes with the exception of sex chromosomes
a chromosome in the shape of a Y or X that determines the sex of the child
twins that dervie from a single zygote that has split into two identical twin
twins that derives from zygotes, fraternal twins
the releasing of an ovum from an ovary
a member of a pair of genes
having two identical alleles
having two different alleles
a person who carries and transmits a recessive gene but does not exhibit its effect.
problems that stem from the interaction of heredity and environmental factors
an extra chromosome in the 21st pair
sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities
abnormalities that are transmitted from generation to generation and carried by a sex chromosome
a chromosomal disorder found among males that is caused by an extra x sex chromosome and that is characterized by infertility and mild mental retardation
a chromosomal disorder found amont females that is caused by having a single x sex chromosome and is characterized by infertility.
a genetic abnormality in which phenyalalanine builds up in the body and causes mental retardation
a fatal genetic degenerative disorder whose onset is in middle age
a genetic disorder that decreases the blood's capacity to carry oxygen
a fatal genetic disorder in which mucus obstructs the lungs and pancreas.
a genetic disorder in which blood does not clot properly
sex-linked genetic abnnormalities
abnormalities resulting from genes that are found on the x sex chromosome. they are more likely to be shown by male offspring that female
a procedure for drawing and examining fetal cells sloughed off into amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders.
chorionice villus sampling
a method for the prenatal detection of genetic abnormalities that samples the membrane enveloping the amniotic sac and fetus
a blood test that assesses the mother's blood evel of alpha-feroprotein, a substance that is linked with fetal neral tube defects
the tendency of growth rates to return to genetically determined patterns after undergoing environmentally induced change
choosing environement that allow us to develp inherited preferences
the inner lining of the uterus
unplanned, accidental abortion
pelvic inflammatory disease
an infection of the abdominal region that may have various causes and that may impair fertility
infammation of endometrial tissues sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation.
injection of sperm into the uterus to fertilize an ovu
in vitro fertilization
fertilization of an ovum in a laboratory dish
the transfer of a donor's ovum, fertilized in a laboratory dish, to the uterus of another woman