Anatomy I

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sisileybao
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39047
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Anatomy I
Updated:
2010-10-05 00:16:20
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Heart
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D1 Fall Mid1
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  1. Mediastinum: Anatomical space between the pleural sacs
    (Roof, Anterior, Posterior, Diaphragm)
    • o Roof:
    • Superior thoracic aperture

    • o Anterior:
    • Sternum + Costal Cartilates

    • o Posterior:
    • Spine

    • o Inferior:
    • Diaphragm
  2. The mediastinum is divided into superior and inferior compartments, and then the inferior mediastinum is divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior
    • o Superior = "3T and VEV"
    • Thoracic duct, trachea, great vessels (sup + inf vena cava), esophagus, vagus
    • nerves, thymus (rather degenerated in adults)

    o Anterior: Fat + CT

    • o Middle:
    • Pericardium, heart, great arteries (parts adjacent to heart), phrenic nerves

    • o Posterior = "DEV"
    • Esophagus, descending thoracic aorta, vagal plexus





    • Thoracic duct, trachea, great vessels (sup + inf vena cava), esophagus, vagus
    • nerves, thymus (rather degenerated in adults)

    • o Superior:
    • Thoracic duct, trachea, great vessels (sup + inf vena cava), esophagus, vagus
    • nerves, thymus (rather degenerated in adults) = “3T and VEV”

    • o Anterior:
    • Fat + CT

    • o Middle:
    • Pericardium, heart, great arteries (parts adjacent to heart), phrenic nerves

    • o Posterior:
    • Esophagus, descending thoracic aorta, vagal plexus = “DEV”






    • o Anterior:
    • Fat + CT

    • o Middle:
    • Pericardium, heart, great arteries (parts adjacent to heart), phrenic nerves

    • o Posterior:
    • Esophagus, descending thoracic aorta, vagal plexus = “DEV”





    • Thoracic duct, trachea, great vessels (sup + inf vena cava), esophagus, vagus
    • nerves, thymus (rather degenerated in adults) = “3T and VEV”

    • o Anterior:
    • Fat + CT

    • o Middle:
    • Pericardium, heart, great arteries (parts adjacent to heart), phrenic nerves

    • o Posterior:
    • Esophagus, descending thoracic aorta, vagal plexus = “DEV”
  3. Pericardium
    • Sacs around the heart that restrict excessive movement (sudden filling) and resist friction during movement by acting as a lubricated container; if the outer
    • layer is being peeled back, then the fibrous pericardium is the outside while
    • the inner one would be the parietal layer (the visceral layer would be directly
    • on top of the heart)
  4. Fibrous Pericardium
    Sort of analogous to body wall, don’t see it in lungs; outermost layer that is relatively tough
  5. Serous Pericardium
    • Like a balloon that the heart pressed down on →
    • bilayered sack; the outer layer is the parietal layer and the inner one is the visceral layer, which lies directly on top of the heart and can’t be removed w/o damaging the heart (epicardium)
  6. Pectinate Muscles
    Rough muscles seen on the inside of the heart (anterior of right atrium), also in the auricle of the left atrium
  7. Trabeculae Carneae
    Rounded, irregular muscular columns that project from the inner surface of the ventricle (except the conus arteriosus)
  8. Papilary Muscles
    Specific type of trabeculae carneae that connect the wall of the heart to the cordae tendineae (which connect to the valves)
  9. Cordae Tendieane
    Cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve
  10. Conus Arteriosus
    • Smooth portion of the right ventricle found around the base of
    • the pulmonary trunk/valve that reduces friction and turbulence
  11. Anterior Interventricular Artery
    Branch of the left coronary artery that descends between the ventricles (other branch – the circumflex branch – which curls around to the back of the heart)
  12. Coronary Sinus
    Part of the venous system of cardiac vessels … it is the segment in the posterior of the heart that collects all of the deoxygenated blood and dumps it into the right atrium; like a sack that can expand to accommodate a larger volume of blood when necessary
  13. Azygous Vein
    Unpaired system of veins found in the posterior that drains the bodywall in the thorax and posterior abdomen. On the right, it is a single continuous vein (called the azygous vein) while on the left the accessory hemiazygous and hemiazygous cover the rostral and caudal portions (intercostal veins 1-7 and intercostal veins 8+ as well as the ascending lumbar vein respectively); the accessory hemiazygous and hemiazygous veins dump into the azygous vein
  14. Angiogenesis
    Generation of blood cells; in the embryo the endoderm differentiates into mesenchyme which differentiates into blood islands
  15. Vasculogenesis
    Begins at d18 when O2 diffusion across the extraembryonic coelom becomes insufficient for the embryos increasing size; the endothelium begins to surround the forming blood islands in the mesenchyme of the yolk sac & chorion, later the vessels invade the embryo
  16. Vitelline Veins
    Drain the yolk sac and contribute to the inferior vena cava, portal vein, superior mesenteric vein
  17. Cardinal Veins
    Drain embryo proper and contrinbute to the great vessels, coronary veins, and azygous vein
  18. Umbilical vein
    Go toward the heart carrying oxygenated blood from the placenta (mostly obliterated … litamentum teres)
  19. Foramen Ovale
    Shunt between the right and left atria allowing blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation in the fetus (closes to become the fossa ovalis)
  20. Ductus Arteriosus
    Shunt between the pulmonary arteries and the aorta that becomes the ligamentum arteriosus after birth; it connects the pulmonary trunk with the aorta right after the arch of the aorta, so the cardiac arteries and the vessels to the head have already branched off
  21. Ductus Venosus
    Portal in the liver of the fetus that connects the umbilical vein (carrying oxygenated blood) with the inferior vena cava so it ends up carrying oxygenated blood to the heart; some of the highly oxygenated blood also goes to the liver (via the portal sinus)
  22. Define three shunt systems in fetal circulation
    • There are three shunts in the embryo that allow the oxygenated blood to travel more quickly through the body. The ductus venosus connects the umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava, so the oxygenated blood is taken to the heart.
    • Upon entering the right atrium, it can flow through the foramen ovale to
    • the left atrium and bypass the pulmonary circulation. Blood that gets into the pulmonary trunk can be transferred to the aorta (just after the aortic arch) via the ductus arteriosus. By the time this duct connects with the aorta, the vessels going to the heart and head have already branched off of the aorta.this is important because the pulmonary trunk is likely to contain a higher concentration of deoxygenated blood than the right atrium, so the blood going the developing heart and brain actually has a higher oxygen concentration than the blood that goes to the rest of the body (after the ductus arteriosis has connected with the aorta)

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