Histology

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Author:
sisileybao
ID:
39098
Filename:
Histology
Updated:
2010-10-02 14:49:47
Tags:
Connective Tissue
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Description:
D1 Fall MID2
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  1. Connective Tissue Types
    • Connective tissue proper (Loose, Dense-Regular or Irregular)
    • Connective tissue w/ special property (Adipose, Elastic)
    • Supporting connective tissue (Cartilage, Bone
  2. Connective Tissue Function
    • • Mechanical support
    • • Material that connects and binds cells into
    • tissues
    • • Binds tissues to each other
    • • Mostly extracellular matrix, few cells
  3. Specific CT functions
    • Capsule surrounding organs
    • Internal support for organs/tissues
    • Tendons, ligaments, areolar (loose) tissue
    • Bone and cartilage are specialized forms of connective tissue
  4. Connective Tissue Composition
    • • Cells (fibroblasts, immune, vascular)
    • • Fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
    • • Ground substance (glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins)
  5. CT Building Blocks
    • •Ground substance
    • Structual glycoproteins
    • Basement membrane
    • Connective Tissue Fibers (Collagen, Elastic, Reticular, Connective Tissue Cells (Fibroblasts, Adipocytes, Macrophages, Plasma cells, Mast cells)
  6. Ground Substances
    Location:
    Composition:
    Mechanical properties:
    • • Extracellular semi-fluid material in connective tissue.
    • • Composed of polysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans [GAGs]). (Hyaluronic acid is the dominant polysaccharide. Others polysaccharides are linked to proteins to form proteoglycans.)
    • • GAGs are hydrophilic and attract water (extracellular fluid).
    • • Mechanical properties of ground substance and extracellular
    • fluid are reinforced by connective tissue fibers.
    • (empty spot in a microscopic view)
  7. ECM
    ground substance with variety of fibers and structural glycoproteins that mediate adhesion of cells to the matrix
  8. Structural Glycoproteins
    Location:
    Example:
    Functions
    • • Proteins bound to polysaccharides
    • • Examples: fibronectin, laminin, fibrillin, tenascin
    • • Functions include cell adhesion and role in extracellular matrix organization
  9. Basement Membrane
    Composition:
    Interface:
    Function:
    • Composed of extracellular matrix proteins. (Collagen type IV, fibronectin, laminin, entactin, and GAGs)
    • • Interfaces connective tissue/parenchymal cells.
    • • Provides support and adhesion of parenchymal cells.
    • • Acts as a barrier and permeability filter
    • • Maintains differentiated functions
  10. Connective Tissue Fiber
    • • Collagen
    • • Elastic
    • • Reticular
  11. Collagen
    • • Type 1: bone, skin, tendon, etc
    • • Type 2: cartilage
    • • Type 3: skin, vessels, reticular fibers
    • • Type 4: basement membranes
    • (1,2,3 form fibers, 4 is mesh)
  12. Elastic
    • elastin stains black
    • surrounded by loose connective tissue
    • Elastic connective tissue found in vertebral ligaments, and many others like large arteries.
  13. Reticular
    • Fibrils made of collagen
    • Abundant in smooth muscle, nerves, spleen ,lymph nodes, bone marrow
    • Form network around cells of liver, kidney, and, endocrine organs
  14. Sclerodermia
    autoimmune where excessive collagen deposited throughout body. Possibly fatal
  15. Elastic Skin
    • genetic defect where collagen is not assembled correctly/ Conversion of
    • procollagen to mature collagen is blocked
  16. CT fibers (visual description)
    • 1) Collagen
    • fibers (pink, wide)
    • Composed of protein, collagen (most abundant protein in the body)
    • Very long, hold structures

    • 2) Elastic fibers
    • (dark, skinny)
    • Composed of protein elastin
    • Not very strong
    • Stretch well, and come back to original length

    • 3) Reticular
    • fibers (inter-lacing web)
    • Reticulin
    • Not very strong
    • Support the tissue in the organ
  17. CT supporting cells
    3 types:
    functions:
    • 1. Fibroblasts
    • Function – synthesis/maintenance of extracellular material
    • 2. Adipocytes
    • Function – storage and metabolism of fat
    • 3. Mast cells, macrophages*, lymphocytes, plasma cells
    • Function – defense and immune reactions (*Note: macrophages have previously been called histiocytes)
  18. Fibroblasts
    • • Most common cell
    • • Produce and secrete fibers and ground substance
    • • Flattened nuclei, sparse cytoplasm
    • • More cytoplasm and altered nucleus = activated (wound healing)
    • • Source of mesenchymal stem cells?
  19. Macrophages
    • • Stem cell in bone marrow, circulating form in blood is monocyte
    • • Migrate into tissues; widespread
    • • Irregular membrane surface; nucleus may be oval and is usually eccentric
    • • Phagocytosis of cell debris and microbes (it engulf ferritin and Carbon)
    • • RBC turnover in spleen
  20. Mast Cells
    • • Cytoplasm full of basophilic granules containing histamine, proteases, chemotactic factors, heparin
    • • Originate from bone marrow stem cell
    • • Dilates and increases permeability of small vessels
    • • Constricts bronchioles
    • • Inflammation
    • • Delayed hypersensitivity (allergic reaction)
    • • Widespread, most common in dermis, respiratory and digestive tracts and along capillaries
    • (egg shaped appearance)
  21. Following injury, mast cells release Histaminecauses
    a classic triple response:
    • (1) vasodilation (erythema)
    • (2) increased vascular permeability (edema)
    • (3) an axon reflex (substance P) (further vasodilation)
  22. Plamsa cells
    • • Common in intestinal lamina propria and glands secreting immunoglubulins such as lacrimal glands, salivary glands, and mammary gland
    • • Oval cell with basophilic cytoplasm, pale centrosome, clockface nucleus
    • • Loaded with rough ER
    • • Differentiate from B - lymphocytes
    • • Life span 10-20 days
  23. osteogenesis imperfecta
    • brittle bone disease
    • genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily
    • defective collagen structure
    • example of why is CT important in dentistry
  24. Over growth of gingival dense fibrous connective tissue is related to:
    related to poor oral hygiene, often in combination with other factors such ingestion of certain drugs

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