Chem I Review 2

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Chem I Review 2
2010-10-15 18:06:32
Chem Review

Chem I Review 2
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  1. Structure of Matter
    each element is made up of very small units of matter called "Atoms"
  2. Atoms
    the basic structural unit of an element, the smalles portion of an element that retains all the properties of that element. these are the particles which actually "combine" with other particles to form a compound.
  3. Atoms are made up of 2 general areas
    Nucleus and Orbits or Shells
  4. Nucleus
    a very dense, small, positively-charged center of an atom that contains most the atom in the form of protons and neutrons, a solid core
  5. Orbits or Shells
    the area outside the nucleus where the elctrons are found, both of these being made up of subatomic particles
  6. Subatomic Particles
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  7. Protons
    (positively charged) particles found in the nucleus of an atom, always at least one, mass of 1 any (unit), charge of +1
  8. Neutrons
    uncharged particles found in the nucleus of an atom, mass of 1 amu, no charge (neutral)
  9. Electrons
    (negatively charged) particles found in the shells or orbits surroundings the nucleus, mass of 1/1837 amu, we will consider it to be zero, has a charge of -1
  10. Atomic Number or Element Number
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons in the shells of an uncombinded atom
  11. Atomic weight
    • the weight given a atom
    • the sum of the weights ofthe electrons, protons & neutrons
  12. Arrangement of the Electrons in the Atom
    the electrons are always found arranged in a particular order around the nucleus of an atom, this order is called electronic configuration
  13. energy levels
    • can only contain a certain number of electrons
    • the first energy level must be completely filled before electrons may fill the second energy level and so forth
  14. the most electrons that can be found in the outermost shell is
  15. valence electrons
    electrons found in the outermost shell of an atom, they are also the particles that will actually be combining with like particles of anothe atom to bond the atoms together and form a compound
  16. valence electrons are responsible for the
    chemical properties as well as many of it's physical properties
  17. electronegativity (En)
    the attraction between the nucleus & the valance, what holds the electrons around the nucleus (keeps from floating away)
  18. The Periodic Table of the Elements
    • developed to attempt to group the elements according to similar properties and types of reactions
    • the elements are arranged horizontally (in rows) in order of increasing atomic number
    • they are also grouped together vertically (in columns) according to their similar chemical properties
    • called groups or families
  19. groups and families
    • are denoted with roman numberals, ea. member of a group is "related" to the other members because:
    • 1. they have similar chemical properties
    • 2. they have same number of valence electrons
  20. Periods
    the elements are arranged horizontally (in rows) in order of increasing atomic numberthey are also grouped together vertically (in columns) according to their similar chemical propertiescalled groups or families
  21. only the electrons in the outermost shell (valance electrons) react with
    the electrons of other atoms
  22. Group I, II & III tend to
    lose their valance electrons
  23. Groups IV-VII tend to
    gain valance electrons
  24. Groups with Special Names:
    • Group I= Alkalis
    • Group VII (7)= halogens (salt formers)
    • Group VIII (8) or O= Inert Gases or Noble Gases (will not react)
  25. molecules
    a combination of two or more atoms , these could be of the same element or they could be atoms of different elements that form a compound.
  26. formula
    a group of symbols that represents all the elements present in a compound or molecules.
  27. subscripts are used to show
    how many atoms there are
  28. coefficient
    are uncombined elements together to make up the compound of the molecule
  29. elements found in nature will
    • form molecules with themselves in order to be stable
    • ex. oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine and nitrogen
  30. diatomic
    anything thats compound of 2 atom
  31. polyatomic
    anything that contains several atoms (or anything more than two atoms)
  32. monatomic
    only the noble gases can stand along on their own (means one)
  33. ions
    a "charged" atom it has either a positive or negative charge
  34. ionization
    the breaking apart of a compound into ions when placed in solution
  35. three types of ionization:
    • 1. Cation
    • 2. Anion
    • 3. Polyatomic ion or Radical
  36. cation
    an atom that has lost electrons when an atom loses electrons it becomes positvely charged
  37. Anion
    an atom that has gained electrons when an atome gains electrons it becomes negatively charged
  38. polyatomic ion or Radical
    a charged group of atoms that stay together & act as a single unit in chemical reactions
  39. list of radicals
    • Ammonium
    • Bicarbonate
    • Carbonate
    • Cyanide
    • Hydroxide
    • Hypochlorite
    • Nitrate
    • Nitrite
    • Sulfate
    • Sulfite
    • Phosphate
    • Phosphite
  40. Ammonium
  41. Bicarbonate
  42. Carbonate
  43. Cyanide
  44. Hydroxide
  45. Hypochlorite
  46. Nitrate
  47. Nitrite
  48. Sulfate
  49. Sulfite
  50. Phosphate
  51. Phosphite
  52. Inert Gas
    is when ions are formed, they take on the electronic configuration
  53. atoms are always "striving" to
    achieve a full outermost shell so they will lose or gain electrons to do this
  54. the electrical charge formed when an atom loses or gains electrons is called
    • the combining capacity
    • the valance / the Group
    • or the oxidation number
  55. electron dot or lewis dot structure
    an abbreviated represenation for the structure of an atom, the symbol stands for the nucleus and all of the energy levels except for the outermost
  56. the dots stand for the
    valence electrons
  57. anything in group I
    • has one valence electron, in order to gain stability, it will tend to lose this electron to achieve a full outermost shell of eight electrons
    • (when it loses/overbalance it is positively charged particle an ion, cation)
  58. anything in group VII (7)
    • has seven valence electrons in order to gain stability, it will tend to gain an electron to reach a full outermost shell of eight electrons
    • (when anything is gained/overbalanced it becomes negatively charged particle and ion, a anion)
  59. Elements are divided into 2 general groups
    • metals
    • non metals
  60. metals physical physical
    • conduct heat & electricity
    • have a luster (shine)
    • some area ductile (shaped)
    • some are malleable (bent)
    • most are solids
  61. mercury
    is a liquid and a exception to most metal physical properties
  62. metal elements exhibit a
    positive electrical charge and tend to be based formers
  63. non-metals physical properties
    • not good conductors
    • usually brittle
    • not malleable
    • not ductile
    • some are solids, some liquids, some gases
  64. non-metal elements exhibit a
    negative electrical and tend to be acid-formers
  65. non-metals are a small group of elements on the
    right side of the Periodic Table includes the groups: Halogens and the Noble or Inert Gases
  66. Compounds
    substances composed of two or more elements combined chemically in definte proportions by weight, only seperated by chemically, carrying both chemical and physical properties different from the constituent elements
  67. Examples of Compounds:
    • NaCl-Salt
    • CO2-Carbon Dioside
    • H2O-water
    • HCHO-formaldehyde
  68. Mixtures
    two or more substances put together but, not chemically combined, elements or compounds may be present in any proportion, seperated by physical means
  69. Examples of Mixtures:
    • coffee(cmpd)
    • water (cmpd)
    • sugar (cmpd) all put together make a mixtures
    • embalming fluid (mixture)
    • blood
    • milk
    • air (water, oxygen, CO2, etc.)
    • saltwater (salt & water)
  70. HCHO gas
    dissolved in water and mixed with all the other constituents