Psych Chapter 1

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Psych Chapter 1
2010-10-03 01:17:58

Psych Chapter 1
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  1. Sigmund Freud
    • 1856-1939
    • worked with psychoanalysis
    • Studied the unconscious determinants of behaviour
  2. G. Stanley Hall
    • 1846-1924
    • contributed to the rapid growth of psychology in America
    • established the first research laboratory 1883, America’s first psychology journal, 1892 driving force between APA establishment
  3. Donald Hebb
    • Highlighted the importance of physiological and neuropsychological perspectives
    • Paved the way for the recent cognitive revolution
    • Emphasized the importance of the brain in psychology
    • Suggested that repeated stimulation leads to the development of cell assemblies, and that these resemble cognitive unites that facilitate behaviour
  4. William James
    his work influenced functionalism [purpose of consciousness]
  5. Brenda Milner
    • Canadian at McGill University
    • She made crucial contributions to our understanding of memory
    • one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada
  6. Carl Rogers
    • 1902-1987
    • argued that human behaviour is governed primarily by each individual’s sense of self
  7. Martin Seligman
    • President of APA in 1997
    • Realized approach of psychology was overly negative and started the positive psychology movement
    • Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
  8. B.F. Skinner
    • 1904-1990
    • philosophy of radical behaviourism
    • organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes
    • free will is an illusion, people are controlled by environment
  9. John B. Watson
    • 1878 – 1958
    • founded behaviourism, a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour
  10. Wilhelm Wundt
    • 1832-1920
    • campaigned to make psychology a discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology [founder of psychology]
    • studied consciousness, psychology was the study of consciousness at this time
    • The original founder of structuralism, based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
  11. The intellectual parents of psychology
    • philosophy and physiology
    • both had interest in the mind
  12. When psychology become an independent science
    • 1879
    • Leipzig, Germany
    • Wilhelm Wundt = founder
    • psychology became the study of consciousness
  13. Structuralism
    • psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements
    • Founded by Edward Titchener
  14. Functionalism
    • William James = founder
    • psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness
  15. Behaviourists
    • John B. Watson
    • psychology should study only observable behaviour
    • redefined psychology as the study of behaviour
    • Emphasizing the importance of the environment over heredity, they began to explore stimulus-response relationships, often using lab animals
  16. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
    emphasized the unconscious determinants of behaviour and the importance of sexuality.
  17. Skinner and Behaviourism
    Skinner emphasized observable behaviour, and he generated controversy by arguing that free will is an illusion
  18. Humanism
    • 1950s, not satisfied with behaviourism or psychoanalysis
    • led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
    • emphasized humans’ freedom and potential for personal growth
  19. First Experimental Lab in Canada
    • 1891
    • University of Toronto
    • James Mark Baldwin
  20. Psychology as a Profession
    • influenced by WW2
    • clinical psychology grew rapidly in 1950s
    • Psychology became a profession as well as a science. This movement toward professionalization eventually spread to other areas in psychology
  21. Advances in the study of cognitive processes and the physiological bases of behaviour occurred in
    1950's - 1960's
  22. 1980's trend to be more aware of cultural factors was based on:
    • by growing global interdependence
    • increased cultural diversity in the Western world
  23. evolutionary psychology
    • 1990s, new theoretical perspective
    • thought is that patterns of behaviour are shaped by natural selection
  24. 21st century emergence
    positive psychology movement
  25. Major areas of research in modern psychology
    • developmental
    • social
    • experimental
    • physiological
    • cognitive
    • personality
    • and psychometrics
  26. Applied psychology, four professional specialties:
    • clinical psychology
    • counseling psychology
    • educational and school
    • industrial and organizational
  27. The seven key themes:
    • psychology is empirical
    • psychology is theoretically diverse
    • psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context
    • behaviour is determined by multiple causes
    • behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage
    • heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour
    • people's experience of the world is highly subjective
  28. Critical thinking
    • the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome
    • it is purposeful, reasoned thinking
    • a critical thinker is flexible, persistent, able to admit mistakes, and mindful of the thinking process
  29. natural selection
    heritable characteristics that provide a survival/reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed to generations and thus become "selected" over time
  30. a stimulus
    any detectable input from the environment, stimulus-response psychology
  31. Ivan Pavlov
    demonstrated stimulus-response before Watson by training dogs to salivate at the sound of a tone
  32. Psychoanalysis
    • created by Freud
    • psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
  33. Contributors to Behaviourism
    • John B. Watson
    • Ivan Pavlov
    • B.F. Skinner
  34. Contributors to Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Sigmund Freud
    • Carl Jung
    • Alfred Adler
  35. Contributors to Cognitive theory
    • Jean Piaget
    • Noam Chomsky
    • Herbert Simon
  36. Basic premise of Behaviourism
    only observable events can be studied scientifically [stimulus-response]
  37. Basic premise for psychoanalytic theory
    unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality/mental disorder
  38. Basic premise for cognitive theory
    human behaviour cannot be fully understood without how people acquire, store, and process info
  39. Contributors to humanistic theory
    • carl rogers
    • abraham maslow
  40. Biological theory contributors
    • james olds
    • roger sperry
    • david hubel
    • torsten wiesel
  41. Evolutionary theory contributors
    • David Buss
    • Martin Daly
    • Margo Wilson
    • Leda Cosmides
    • John Tosby
  42. Humanistic theory, main premise
    • humans are free, rational beings with potential for personal growth
    • they are different from animals
  43. the main premise of biological theory
    an organism's functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behaviour
  44. the main premise of evolutionary theory
    behaviour patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favours behaviours that enhance reproductive success
  45. Canadian Psychology Association was established in
  46. Applied psychology
    a branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
  47. Clinical Psychology
    a branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of problems/disorders
  48. cognition
    the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
  49. neuroscience
    includes developmental, clinical, personality, and social psychology now that they've taken greater interest
  50. neuroethics
    concerned with how info concerning our brain and its connection to behaviour is used
  51. Reasons why Western psychology used to be narrow [no diversity]
    • 1. cross-cultural research is costly, difficult, and time consuming
    • 2. some psych's worry that cultural comparisons will lead to stereotypes
    • 3. ethnocentrism - the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others
  52. The positive psychology movement, 3 areas of interest
    • 1. positive subjective experiences
    • 2. positive individual traits
    • 3. positive institutions and communities
  53. Psychology Today
    the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underly it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
  54. Research areas in psychology
    • developmental
    • social
    • experimental
    • physiological
    • cognitive
    • personality
    • psychometrics
  55. Clinical Psychologists
    • evaluation
    • diagnosis
    • treatment
    • disorders
    • treat less sever behaviour and emotional problems
    • interviewing
    • psych testing
    • providing psychotherapy
  56. Counseling psycholgists
    • overlaps with clinical
    • interviewing, and testing
    • providing therapy
    • different clientele
    • assist strugglers with everyday problems of medium severity
    • specialize in family, marital or career help
  57. Educational psychology
    • improve curriculum design
    • achievemnt testing
    • teacher training
    • educational processes
    • work in elementary or secondary schools
    • test/counsel children having difficulties
    • aid teachers and parents in solving problems
  58. industrial psychology
    • business and industry
    • improve staff morale/attitudes
    • increase job satisfaction/productivity
    • examine organizational structure/procedures
    • make recommendations for improvement
  59. psychology vs. psychiatry
    • both are involved with analyzing/treating psychological disorders
    • training/education = VERY DIFFERENT
    • Psychiatry is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
    • psychology is a non-medical approach
  60. SQ3R
    • a study system designed to promote effective reading, which includes five steps:
    • survey
    • question
    • read
    • recite
    • review