Axial Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton
2010-10-02 16:52:05


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  1. long bone
  2. short bone
    carpals, tarsals
  3. flat bone
  4. irregular bone
  5. sesamoid bone
    patella (knee cap)
  6. tuberosity
    large round projection
  7. tubercle
    small round projection
  8. trochanter
    large blunt, irregularly shaped process (femur only)
  9. line
    narrow ridge, less prominent than crest
  10. crest
    narrowredge, usually prominent
  11. condyle
    round articular projection
  12. epicondyle
    raised area on/above condyle
  13. spine
    sharp, slender pointed projection
  14. process
  15. head
    bony expansion on narrow neck
  16. facet
    smooth flat articular surface
  17. ramus
    arm like bar of bone
  18. sinus
    space within bone, filled with air, lined with mucos
  19. meatus
    canal like passage
  20. fossa
    shallow basin like depression, articular surface
  21. groove
  22. fissure
    narrow slit-like opening
  23. foramen
    round oval openeing
  24. Long bone...
  25. periosteum
    fibrous covering of bone
  26. endosteum
    inner lining of shaft
  27. diaphysis
  28. epiphysis
    ends of long bones
  29. articular cartilage
    covers epiphysis in place of periosteum
  30. epiphyseal plate
    thin area of hyalin cartilage (young embryo)
  31. epiphyseal lines
    remnants of epiphyseal plate
  32. medullary cavity
    central cavity of shaft, contains yellow marrow (adipose)
  33. yellow marrow
    in medullary cavity of adults
  34. red marrow
    in medullary cavity of infants, epiphysis of adults
  35. compact bone
    dense, with passageways
  36. spongy bone
    spikey open-work appearance
  37. Microscopic structure
  38. Central (haversian) canal
    runs parellel to long axis of bone
  39. perforating (volkmann's) canal
    connect central canals, medullary cavity, and periosteum
  40. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  41. lacunae
    chamers that house osteocytes
  42. lamella
    concentric circles of lacunae around haversian canal
  43. canaliculi
    tiny canals that connect central canal to lacunae/lamella
  44. Osteon (haversian system)
    central canal and all surrounding concentric lamella
  45. Hyaline carilage
    most skeletal cartilage; joints, ribs-sternum
  46. elastic cartilage
    external ear, epiglotis
  47. fibrocartilage
    intervertebral disks, meniscus. cartilage/dense regular C.T. hybrid
  48. Vertebrae
    • cervical-7 have transverse foramen
    • thorasic-12 giraffe, costal facets to connect ribs
    • lumbar-5 moose larger body and spinous process
  49. Sacrum
    • 5 fused vertebrae
    • ala-wing-like edges
    • promontory-crest in middle, above sacral canal
    • sacral hiatus- distal exit of the sacral canal
  50. coccyx
    • 4 fused vertebrae
    • distal of sacrum
  51. Sternum...
  52. manubrium
    • top part
    • jugular notch btwn clavicals
    • sternal angle (bump) btwn manubrium and body
  53. body
    where ribs attach
  54. xyphoid process
    • very bottom. near 5th intercostal space
    • hyaline cart. in infants, bone in adults
  55. Ribs
    • 1-7: true ribs, vertebrosternal connect to sternum directly via hyaline cartilage
    • 8-10: false ribs, vertebrochondral, attach to costal cartilage that connects 1-7 to sternum
    • 11-12: false ribs, floating/vertebral. do not connect to sternum
    • all ribs connect to thorasic vertebrae via costal facets