How does the respiratory system perform its function?
Name the three processes of respiration.
What is the respiration process that involves air moving into and out of the lungs for gas exchange?
What is the respiration process that involves the movement of O2 from blood to the tissue cells and of CO2 from tissue cells to the blood?
What is the respiration process that involves the movement of O2 from the alveoli in the lungs to the blood and CO2 from the blood to the lungs?
Name the seven parts of the respiratory system.
Bronchi and their smaller branches
Lungs ending in alveoli
Which zone of the respiratory system is the site of gas exchange and has microscopic respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
Which zone of the respiratory system includes other respiratory passageways and cleanses, humidifies, and warms incoming air?
This connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and the esophagus inferiorly (the throat).
Name the three regions of the pharynx.
Which region of the pharynx serves only as an air passageway? It is posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid, and superior to the level of the soft palate.
Which region of the pharynx serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium?
Which region of the pharynx serves as a passageway for food and air and contains tonsils in its mucosa and is continuous with the isthmus of the fauces?
Its three functions include providing an open airway, acting as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels, and voice production.
Larynx or voice box
How many hyaline cartilages are in the larynx?
What is the midline laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage that is the result of the fusion of two cartilage plates called?
What stimulates the growth of the thyroid cartilage during puberty?
Male sex hormones
What is the flexible, spoon-shaped ninth cartilage that is composed of elastic cartilage and is covered by a taste bud-containing mucosa?
When only air is flowing into the larynx, what is the position of the epiglottis?
Epiglottis projects upward, larynx is open.
When is the larynx pulled superiorly causing the epiglottis tips to cover the laryngeal inlet?
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Keep food out of lower respiratory passages
These elastic fibers with folds vibrate, producing sounds as air rushes up from the lungs.
Vocal folds or true vocal cords
The vocal cords and the medial opening between them through which air passes are called what?
What process involves the intermittent release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis?
The length of the true vocal cords and the size of the glottis depend on the action of what muscles?
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
As the length and tension of the cords change, this varies.
This would cause faster vibration and higher pitch.
What happens to a male�s vocal cords during puberty that causes slower vibrations and a deeper voice?
Vocal cords become longer and thicker
This descends from the larynx into the mediastinum and ends by dividing into two main bronchi midthorax. Flexible and mobile with three layers that make up its wall. Ciliated, propel mucus towards pharynx.
Trachea or windpipe
Name the three layers of the tracheal wall.
The bronchi run obliquely in the mediastinum and into this medial depression of the lung.
Which bronchi is shorter, wider, and more vertical? Is a common site for inhaled foreign objects to be lodged.
How many lobar bronchi are in the right lung? The left?
The number of lobar bronchi corresponds with the number of these.
How many orders of bronchioles are found in the lungs?
In smaller bronchioles, would you more likely find cartilage rings or elastic fibers?
How does the thinning epithelium change as the bronchioles get smaller?
Pseudostratified columnar, then
Columnar, and end as
Cuboidal in terminal bronchioles
Does the amount of smooth muscle in tube walls increase or decrease as passageways become smaller?
The respiratory zone is defined by the presence of these thin-walled air sacs.
Bronchioles lead into these.
Alveolar ducts lead into these terminal clusters of alveoli.
These account for most of lung volume to facilitate gas exchange.
What is the average number of alveoli?
These connect adjacent alveoli allowing air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized.
Name the lobes of the right lung.
Pulmonary and systemic blood vessels enter and leave the lungs here.
What suspends the lungs in the thoracic cavity?
The lung surface lies in close contact with these to form the curving costal surface.
What carries systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs?
What carries freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?
These are large-volume and low-pressure.
What are considered small-volume and high-pressure input?
Why is the lung capillary epithelium an ideal location for enzymes that act on materials in the blood?
Because all the body�s blood passes through about once per minute
What affect do parasympathetic fibers have on air tubes?
What affect does the sympathetic nervous system have on air tubes?
Name three things that provide innervation to the lungs.
Parasympathetic motor fibers
Sympathetic motor fibers
Visceral sensory fibers
What are the two processes involved in pulmonary ventilation?
What happens to the diaphragm during inhalation? Exhalation?
Name three physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation.
Alveolar surface tension
This increases as the tubes of the bronchial tree get smaller.
The round shape of the alveoli increases this, increasing capacity during ventilation.
Alveolar surface tension
This is determined by the elasticity of the alveoli.
This is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions. 500 ml.
Tidal volume (TV)
This is the amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation. 1200/700 ml.
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
This is the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation. 3100/1900 ml.
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
This is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation. 1200/1100 ml.
Residual volume (RV)
What is the total lung capacity?
How does gas exchange occur between the alveoli and the capillaries?
This states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of each gas.
Dalton�s Law of Partial Pressures
What is the normal rate of breath?
Name two places that serve as respiratory centers.
Higher brain centers
What is happening when impulses are sent from the medulla oblongata to the diaphragm and the external intercostals causing contraction?
What is happening when the impulse stops and the muscles relax?
The respiratory center can be influenced by what two types of inputs?
When there is a rise of these two chemicals, the respiratory center increases rate and depth of breathing. Directly sensitive.
CO2 and H+
The respiratory center is indirectly responsive to this chemical. When levels in the carotid and aortic bodies decrease, impulses are sent to the respiratory center which then increases the rate and depth of breathing.
Name three parts of the respiratory system that are usually affected by an upper respiratory tract infection.
An upper respiratory tract infection can spread to what two areas?
Viral infections can lead to what other kind of infection?
Secondary bacterial infections
What infection associated with a sore throat, high fever, and white patches?
What infection is associated with nasal congestion, postnasal discharge, and facial pain?
This is a middle ear infection that spreads from the nasal cavity through eustachian tubes. Treated with antibiotics or tympanostomy tubes.
Inflammation of the tonsils.
An infection of the larynx, persistent hoarseness without an upper respiratory infection.
A lower respiratory secondary infection associated with a deep cough, expectoration of mucus and pus.
This can be a viral or bacterial i=lung infection. Fluid present in alveoli and bronchioles. High fever, chills, and chest pain. Affects many AIDS patients.
Infected tissue encapsulates bacteria-tubercle and is treated by antibiotics.
Type of disorder where lungs lose elasticity, pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of particles.
Restrictive pulmonary disorders
Name three obstructive pulmonary disorders. (decreased air flow)