Psychology Chapter 4

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Psychology Chapter 4
2010-10-02 19:09:42
Psychology Chapter

Psychology Chapter 4
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  1. Consciousness
    • Everything we are aware of at any given time:
    • thoughts
    • feelings
    • sensations
    • external stimuli
  2. Circadian rhythm
    • -Regular fluctuations of certain bodily functions within a 24 hour period
    • -Environmental cues: bright light (sunlight), sleep-wakefulness cycle, daily fluctuations of body temperature
  3. Delayed sleep phase syndrome
    Hard time falling asleep, brought on by hormal changes, maintained by staying up late, common among adolescents and young adults
  4. Advanced sleep phase syndrome
    Fall asleep early
  5. Subjective night
    Energy & efficiency are at the lowest points, reaction time is slow, productivity is diminished, accident rates are higher
  6. Restorative theory
    Being awake produces wear & tear on body & brain, & sleep serves the function of restoring the body & brain
  7. NREM
    Non-rapid eye movement sleep
  8. REM
    Rapid eye movement; also called "active sleep"
  9. REM sleep
    • Internally
    • -intense brain activity
    • -brain temperature rises rapidly
    • -increase in blood pressure & respiration

    • Externally
    • -large muscles become paralyzed
    • -eyes dart around
    • -dreaming occurs in 80% of people
    • -brain consolidates learning and memory
  10. Sleep cycles
    Last about 90 minutes
  11. Stage 1
    Transition between period of drowsiness between waking & sleeping
  12. REM rebound
    Increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM depression
  13. REM
    Associated with unpleasant dreams and nightmares
  14. Sleep deprivation results from:
    Difficulty concentrating, attention lapses, general irritability, decreased cognitive function, impaired learning
  15. Infants & young children:
    Have longest sleep time, stay in REM longest
  16. 6 years old to puberty:
    Sleep and wake the same time daily
  17. Adolescents:
    Sleep patterns influenced by schedule, sleep longer when no schedule conflicts, poor sleep contributes to poor school performance
  18. REM dream
    Continually occuring dreams, story like qualities, more vivid, visual, emotional
  19. NREM dream
    Less frequent, less memorable
  20. Lucid dreams
    Individual is aware of dreaming and able to influence content
  21. Sigmund Freud
    Believed that our dreams satisfy unconscious sexual and agressive desires
  22. Manifest content
    Content dream as recalled by the dreamer
  23. Latent content
    Meaning of the dream
  24. In recent years...
    Dreams are seen as an expression of a broad range of dreamers concerns rather than sexual impulses
  25. Activation-synthesis hypothesis
    Sleep is the brains attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during sleep; impose meaning on mental activity
  26. Sleep walking
    Occurs during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep
  27. Sleep terror
    Partial arousal from stage 4 sleep; begins with piercing scream; hard to wake up
  28. Nightmares
    Frightening dreams that happen during REM sleep
  29. Sleep talking
    Occur during any stage of sleep; more frequent among children
  30. Narcolepsy
    Incurable, excessive daytime sleepiness & uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep
  31. Sleep apnea
    Periods during sleep when breathing stops; individual must wake up briefly to breathe
  32. Insomnia
    Difficulty falling asleep/staying asleep, waking up too early, sleep that is light, restless or poor quality
  33. Meditation
    Focus attention on a word or object; block out all distractions; alter consciousness; helps with psychological and physical problems- lowers blood pressure; learn how to control emotions
  34. Hypnosis
    A procedure where the hypnotists uses the power of suggestion to induce changes in a persons: thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions and behavior
  35. 80% to 95% of people are hypnotizable;
    Only 5% can reach the deepest level
  36. Hypnotized people are under complete control of the hypnotists.
  37. People under hypnosis will reveal embarrassing secrets
  38. Sociocognitive theory
    Suggests that the behavior of a hypnotized person is a function of that persons expectations about how subjects behave under hypnosis
  39. Every culture has found ways to alter states of consciousness by:
    Religious rites & tribal ceremonies
  40. Psychoactive drugs
    Any substance that has powerful effects on the brain and alters the consciousness, mood, perception & thought
  41. Illicit drugs
    Illegal drugs
  42. Surge of dopamine
    Acts a reward, motivational effects; produced by psychoactive drugs
  43. Heroin & morphine
    Chemicals in the brain with pain relieving properties are affected; produce feelings of well- being
  44. Depressants
    Alcohol, barbituates, tranquilizers (valium & librium)
  45. Stimulants
    Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine; supress hunger & digestion - "diet pills"
  46. Amphetamines
    Affect the parts of the brain that control attention & concentration
  47. Substance abuse
    Continue to use drugs even though it has a negative effect on you
  48. Drug dependence
  49. Physical dependence
    Compulsive pattern of drug use: drug tolerance, unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  50. Psychological dependence
    Craving or irresistable urge for the drugs pleasurable affects; harder to overcome that physical addiction
  51. Withdrawal symptoms
    Physical and psychological symptoms that occur when drugs are discontinued; opposite effects are produced by the drug
  52. Stimulants
    Speed up activity in the central nervous system, supresses appetite, "feel" more awake and energetic, called "uppers"
  53. Caffeine
    Improves visual activity, withdrawal: nervousness, instability, headaches, decreased alertness
  54. Nicotine
    • Increases alertness, highly addictive
    • Nicotine patches help 1 in 5 smokers quit
  55. Amphetamines
    Increase arousal, supresses appetite, rush of energy, helps with ADHD, can cause manic behavior and paranoia
  56. Cocaine
    Can be sniffed, injected, or smoked (crack)
  57. Cocaine
    Euphoria followed by crash & depression, anxiety, agitation, crave more cocaine
    Main withdrawal symptoms: unable to feel pleasure, desire for more drug
  58. Alcohol
    Depresses central nervous system, poor coordination, impaired death perception, decreses the ability to form new memories, expectations affect how alcohol affects you
  59. Barbituates
    Abusers become: drowsy & confused, thinking & judgement suffer, coordination & reflexes suffer, fatal when taken with alcohol
  60. Minor tranquilizers
    Abuse associated with temporary/permanent impairment of memory
  61. Narcotics
    Derived from opiate poppy, refer to pain medications, withdrawal symptoms: 6 to 24 hours, nausea, diahrrea, depression, stomach cramps, insomnia, increased pain
  62. Marijuana
    Remains in body for days/weeks; interferes with memory; can be used for glaucoma, AIDS & cancer
  63. LSD
    • - aka"acid"
    • - a "trip" lasts 10-12 hours, bad trips associated with accidents, death, suicide