Inflammation/Wound Healing

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Author:
thezidane
ID:
39157
Filename:
Inflammation/Wound Healing
Updated:
2010-10-02 19:43:52
Tags:
pathology
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Description:
Overview of inflammation and selected aspects of wound healing
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  1. what 3 molecules mediate fever?
    IL-1, TNF, PGE2
  2. heat, redness and swelling during inflammation are caused by what?
    changes in vascularity
  3. what vascular changes occur during acute inflammation?
    vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
  4. vasodilation is mediated by what molecules?
    endothelial derived NO to induce vascular smooth muscle relaxation and mast cell release of histamine
  5. vasodilation is maintained by what class of molecules?
    prostaglandins
  6. what results from increased vascular permeability?
    movement of fluid out of vasculature, blood becomes more concentrated and flow slows (stasis)
  7. tissue and endothelial cell damage is marked by what 3 types of exudate?
    fibrinous, purulent, sanguineous
  8. purulent exudate contains mostly what type of cell?
    neutrophil
  9. define endothelial cell contraction
    formation of intercellular gaps due to reversible contraction lasting for 15-30 minutes
  10. endothelial cell contraction is mediated by what molecules late and early?
    early: histamine, bradykinin. later: leukotrienes and PAF. C3a and C5a lead to edema
  11. explain endothelial cell retraction
    restructuring of cytoskeleton proteins that takes 4-8 hours to develop and lasts for 24 hours or more.
  12. endothelial cell retraction is mediated by what molecules?
    IL-1, TNF, IFN-g
  13. activated endothelials are characterized by what?
    production of PGI2 and NO, contraction, rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins leading to retraction, increased expression of adhesions, synth and release of inflammatory mediators.
  14. what is the sequence of leukocyte extravasation?
    margination, rolling, adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis
  15. rolling and adhesion are mediated by what molecules?
    rolling: selectins, adhesion: integrins
  16. define diapedesis
    transmigration of cells through the vessel wall
  17. diapedesis is mediated by what molecule?
    PECAM-1
  18. Two potent chemotactic molecules are?
    PAF, LTB4 (remember PAF helps in contraction)
  19. activation of leukocytes is characterized by what 5 factors?
    leukotrienes and prostaglandins, degranulation/release of lysosomal enzymes, ROS, cytokines, cell adhesion molecules
  20. what cell is the hallmark of acute inflammation?
    neutrophils (accumulate within 6-24 hrs)
  21. define cellulitis
    diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. edema
  22. define abscess
    localized area of liquefactive necrosis
  23. define ulcer
    erosion of an epithelial surface exposing underlying connective tissue
  24. name 3 reasons for chronic inflammation
    persistent infections, prolonged exposure to toxic agent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease
  25. describe granulomatous inflammation
    delayed type-IV hypersensitivity, caseous necrosis, collar of mononuclear cells surrounding aggregated epithelioid histiocytes. heals by fibrosis
  26. list 4 diseases characterized by granulomatous inflammation
    bacterial TB, parasitic toxoplasmosis, fungal histoplasmosis/mycosis, inorganic silicosis or inert foreign material
  27. source and function of histamine?
    mast cells, vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
  28. Function of bradykinin?
    increase vascular permeability, pain
  29. Source/function of NO
    endothelials, vasodilation and tissue damage
  30. source/function of prostaglandins
    membrane phospholipids, vasodilation, pain, fever
  31. source/function of leukotrienes
    membrane phospholipids, increase vascular permeability, vascoconstriction, bronchoconstriction
  32. source/function of leukotriene B4
    leukocyte, leukocyte activation, chemotaxis
  33. source/function of PAF
    leukocytes and endothelials; increase vascular permeability and chemotactic
  34. source/function of cytokines (IL-1, TNF)
    macrophage, endothelials; endothelial and leukocyte activation, fever
  35. function of C5a and C3a?
    increase vascular permeability
  36. what molecules function as vasodilators?
    histamine, NO, prostaglandins
  37. what molecules serve to increase vascular permeability
    histamine, bradykinin, leukotrienes, PAF, C3a, C5a
  38. how do NSAIDs work to relieve inflammation?
    by blocking cyclo-oxygenase activity
  39. how do steroids relieve inflammation
    by inhibiting the release of arachidonic acid
  40. thromboxane A2 does what?
    vasoconstriction, promotes platelet aggregation
  41. what works in opposition to thromboxane A2
    prostacyclin which inhibits platelet aggregation

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