Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular Skeleton
2010-10-02 20:34:21


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  1. appendicular skeleton
    126 bones, appendages, pectoral and pelvic girdles.
  2. Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle
    • clavicle (anterior)-collar bone
    • scapula (posterior)-shoulder blade
    • connect at acromio-clavicular joint
  3. Humerus
    • long bone, round head fits into glenoid cavity of scapula
    • ulna connects at coronoid fossa (anterior) and olecranon fossa (posterior)
    • radius connects at radial fossa (anterior)
  4. Radius
    lateral when in anatomical position (palms out)
  5. Ulna
    medial in anatomical position (palms out)
  6. carpals
    wrist bones (8)
  7. metacarpals
    • bones of palm.
    • 1-5 starting at thumb side (pollex)
  8. phalanges
    • bones of fingers
    • fingers have 3 bones each (proximal, mid, distal)
    • thumb has 2 (proximal, distal)
  9. Coxal bones
    • Ilium- large flaring bone, major portion of coxal bone
    • Pubis- pubic bone. most anterior
    • Ischium- "sit-down" bone, most inferior and posterior portion
  10. male v female pelvis
    • male-pubic angle/arch 50-60* (more acute), sacrum-narrow, more curved, pelvic inlet-heart shaped
    • female-pubic angle/arch 80-90* (more obtuse), sacrum-wider, less curved; pelvic inlet-oval shaped
  11. Femur
    • thigh bone
    • articulates with hip via acetabulum of pelvis
  12. Patella
    • knee cap
    • sesamoid bone, enclosed in quadricep tendon.
    • protects knee joint and improves leverage of thigh muscles
  13. Tibia
    • shin bone
    • larger/more medial
  14. Fibula
    • thin, sticklike
    • distal end-lateral malleolus (bulge in ankle)
  15. Tarsals
    • 7 bones of foot, include
    • calcaneus- heel bone
    • talus- superior to calcaneus, connects to articular surface of tibia
  16. Metatarsals
    • 5 bones
    • form instep/arch of foot
  17. Phalanges
    toe bones, 14 total
  18. Synovial joints
    • articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid
    • articular cartilage- hyaline cartilae covering surfaces of bones forming joint
    • joint capsule (cavity)- cavity around joint containing synovial fluid
    • synovial membrane- membrane around joint cavity
    • articular capsule- connective tissue surrounding synovial membrane
  19. plane joint
    • intercarpal/intertarsal joints
    • flat or slightly curved articular surfaces
    • allow sliding movements
  20. hinge joint
    • elbow joint, interphalangeal joint
    • rounded process of one bone fits into concave surface of another
    • allows movement in one plane (uniaxial) flexion/extension
  21. pivot joint
    • proximal radio-ulnar joint, C1-C2 joint
    • rounded surface of one bone-shallow depression or foramen in another
    • allows uniaxial rotation
  22. condyloid joint
    • radiocarpal joint, knuckles
    • allow biaxial (two-way) movement
  23. saddle joint
    • thumb-metacarpal joint
    • allow biaxial movement
  24. ball and socket joint
    • shoulder joint, hip joint
    • allow multiaxial movement
  25. flexion
    • decreases the angle of the joint
    • reduces distance between the two bones
    • hinge, ball and socket joints
  26. extension
    • increases the angle of a joint
    • increases distance between the two bones
  27. abduction
    movement of a limb away from the midline (median)
  28. adduction
    movement of a limb toward midline (median)
  29. rotation
    • movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
    • atlas (C1) around odontoid process of axis (C2)
  30. circumduction
    • ball and socket
    • proximal end stationary, distal end moves in circle
  31. pronation
    • palm of hand anterior to posterior facing
    • radius rotates over ulna
  32. supination
    • palm of hand posterior to anterior
    • radius and ulna parellel
  33. inversion
    sole of foot rotates to medial
  34. eversion
    sole of foot rotates laterally
  35. dorsiflexion
    • ankle joint moves in dorsal direction
    • standing on heel
  36. plantar flexion
    • ankle joint moves so foot flexes downward
    • standing on toes