Lecture: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure

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Lecture: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure
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2010-10-03 14:54:30
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IBHS : munson (part 1) . midterm 1 524 good luck!
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  1. 5 functions of Skeletal system
    • 1. Support
    • 2. protection
    • 3. leverage
    • 4. blood cell production
    • 5. mineral and lipid storage
  2. context: 5 functions of Skeletal system
    support
    structural support; attachment for connective tissue
  3. context: 5 functions of Skeletal system
    protection
    surround organs
  4. context: 5 functions of Skeletal system
    leverage
    function as levers to move loads
  5. context: 5 functions of Skeletal system
    blood cell production
    hematopoiesis in red bone marrow
  6. context: 5 functions of Skeletal system
    mineral and lipid storage
    • body's reserves fro calcium (99%) and phosphate (88%)
    • storage of lipids in yellow bone marrow
  7. Gross anatomy of bones is classified by which of the following:
    1. size
    2. shape
    3. strength
    • answer:
    • 2. SHAPE
  8. 6 shapes of bones
    • 1. long
    • 2. short
    • 3. flat
    • 4. sutural
    • 5. irregular
    • 6. sesamoid
  9. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    long
    • 1) upper arm
    • 2) forearm
    • 3) legs
    • 4) hands
    • 5) feet
    • 6) fingers
    • 7) toes
  10. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    short
    • 1) carpals (wrist)
    • 2) tarsal (ankle)
  11. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    flat
    • 1) facial
    • 2) skull
    • 3) sternum
    • 4) jaw
    • 5) ribs
    • 6) scapula
  12. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    sutural
    between sutures in skull
  13. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    irregular
    • 1) vertebrae
    • 2) pelvis
  14. context: 6 shapes of bones : location
    sesamoid
    patella
  15. context: bone anatomy
    2 bone types
    • 1. compact bone
    • 2. spongy bone
  16. context: 2 bone types
    compact bone
    • hard, outer portion
    • 80% bone mass
    • 20% surface area
    • parallel stress; not perpendicular
    • Appendicular skeleton
  17. context: Structure of Compact bone
    3 types of lamellae (layers of matrix)
    • 1. concentric - central canals
    • 2. interstitial - no central canals
    • 3. circumferential - no central canals
  18. context: 2 bone types
    spongy bone
    • lighter, inner portion and bone ends
    • 20% bone mass
    • 80% surface area
    • multidirectional stress
    • Axial skeleton
    • ----
    • no osteons but rather trabeculae (no capillaries, but struts for strength).
    • in between is bathe in bone marrow (red and yellow).
    • red: all at birth
    • yellow: 50% in adults
  19. 2 types of bone coverings
    • 1. periosteum
    • 2. endosteum
  20. context: 2 types of bone coverings
    periosteum
    • outside of compact bone
    • EXCEPT in joints
    • peri/perimeter!
  21. 4 functions of periosteum
    • 1) isolates bone from surrounding tissue
    • 2) provides route for vessels and nerves
    • 3) anchors bone to tendons and ligaments
    • 4) active in growth, repair, remodeling
  22. context: 2 types of bone coverings
    endosteum
    medullary cavity and central canal
  23. 2 functions of endosteum
    • 1) lines marrow cavity and central canal
    • 2) active in growth, repair, remodeling
  24. 4 types of bone cells
    • (building up bone)
    • 1. osteoprogenitor
    • 2. osteoblasts
    • 3. osteocytes
    • ----------
    • (destroying down bone)
    • 4. osteclasts
  25. context: 4 types of bone cells
    osteoprogenitor
    • bone stem cell
    • -can convert to osteoblasts
    • found in: endosteum or periosteum
    • -----
    • origin: mesenchymal cells
    • location: cellular layer of periosteum, endosteum, and linings of canals
    • function: stem cells of bone (differentiate into osteoblasts)
  26. context: 4 types of bone cells
    osteoblasts
    • bone builders
    • form new bone
    • immature bone cell that secrete organic components of matrix (to become bony matrix)
    • found in: perimeter
    • -------
    • origin: osteoprogenitor cells
    • location: periosteum and endosteum
    • function: osteogenesis: production of bone matrix (fibers + ground substance)
    • Process: initially, matrix is primarily organic (collagen) called osteoid
    • then calcium salts are deposited (calcium phosphates)
  27. context: 4 types of bone cells
    osteocytes
    • bone maintenance
    • -osteoblasts turn into after encased in bone
    • mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix
    • found in: in lacunae (stuck) only in matrix because they get stuck (they were osteoblasts).
    • -----
    • origin: develop from osteoblasts (mature bone cells surrounded by matrix)
    • location: lacunae in matrix (osteocytes connects via canaliculi, passageways in the matrix to other lacunae and blood vessels to outer osteoblasts and through gap junctions can get transport of nutrients and waste.)
    • functions:
    • 1) monitor and maintain mineral and protein content of matrix (continual turnover of bone)
    • 2) repair damaged bone (leave lacunae and convert back to osteoblasts ---WHAAA??? that's some crazy nonsense, but it's true!)
  28. context: 4 types of bone cells
    osteoclasts
    • bone demolition
    • multinucleated cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix
    • found in: medullary cavity
    • ------
    • origin: related to myloid stem cells/monoblasts (same as for monocytes/macrophages) - notably multinucleated!
    • location: endosteum, periosteum
    • function: osteolysis - removal and recycling of minerals and bone matrix - secrete acids and proteases to dissolve matrix
    • See if you can tell if you covered up the words and know what each are! :D
    • oooo exercising your brain!
  29. 3 parts of bone in gross anatomy
    • 1. epiphysis - ends
    • 2. diaphysis - shaft
    • 3. metaphysis -between/middle of diaphysis-epiphysis
  30. context: bone matrix
    lamellae
    layers of matrix
  31. 2 components of bone matrix
    • 1) Organic
    • 2) Inorganic
  32. context: 2 components of bone matrix
    organic components
    • 33% of bone weight
    • collagen fibers (very small amount of cells)
    • tough, but flexible
    • tolerates twisting and bending
    • scaffolding for crystal formation
  33. context: 2 components of bone matrix
    inorganic components
    • 67% of bone weight
    • Calcium phosphate
    • + calcium hydroxide = hydroxyapatite
    • during formation of these crystals: CaCO3, Na+, Mg2+, F- are incorporated
    • This makes bone hard and inflexible; brittle and resists compression
  34. NOTE: calcium dominates in inorganic component of bone matrix
  35. Bone development overview
    • bony skeleton starts to form 6 weeks after fertilization
    • cartilage before bone
    • portions of bone do not stop growing until ~25 years
    • remodeled for lifetime!!
    • you get ossification from cartilage or fibrous connective tissue or mesenchyme
  36. context: bone formation and growth
    2 types of ossification
    • 1. endochondral ossification
    • 2. intramembranous ossification
  37. context: 2 types of ossification
    endochondral ossification
    • most bones (long bones)
    • bones replacing existing cartilage
    • -----
    • Long bone formation
    • Hyaline cartilage converted to bone
  38. context: 2 types of ossification
    intramembranous ossification
    • flat bones
    • develops from fibrous connective tissue or mesenchyme (not from cartilage precursor)
    • -------
    • formed in the deep dermis
    • the mesenchymal cells secrete matrix
  39. context: bone formation and growth
    calcification
    • deposition of calcium salts
    • -occurs during ossification
    • -can occur in other tissues (ex: heart with ionic imbalances from kidneys)
  40. 2 types of supporting connective tissues
    • 1) cartilage - solid, rubbery matrix (hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage) Fig. 4-15
    • 2) bone - solid, crystalline matrix Fig. 4-16
  41. context: 2 types of supporting connective tissues
    cartilage
    • 1. matrix:
    • -ground substance: Chondroitin Sulfate (firm gel)
    • -fibers: collagen, elastic, reticular
    • 2. cells:
    • -Chondrocytes (in lacunae)
    • 3. Avascular
    • -Chondrocytes produce antiangiogenic factor
    • 4. reparability
    • -limited
  42. context: 2 types of supporting connective tissues
    bone
    • 1. matrix:
    • -ground substance (2/3): calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate
    • -fibers (1/3): collagen
    • 2. cells:
    • -osteocytes (in lacunae)
    • 3. vascular:
    • -higher energy demands than cartilage
    • 4. reparability:
    • -extensive
  43. context: supporting connective tissue
    3 types of cartilage
    • 1. elastic
    • 2. hyaline
    • 3. fibrous
  44. context: 3 types of cartilage
    elastic cartilage
    • matrix: elastic fibers
    • attribute: resilient and flexible
    • location: external ear, epiglottis, larynx, auditory tube
  45. context: 3 types of cartilage
    hyaline cartilage
    • MOST COMMON
    • matrix: densely packed collagen fibers
    • attribute: tough, somewhat flexible
    • location: ribs to sternum, nasal septum, joints, airways
    • (intermediate between other 2 types -semi flexible and tough but not inflexible)
  46. context: 3 types of cartilage
    fibrous cartilage
    • matrix: dense, interwoven collagen; decreased ground substance
    • attribute: very tough and durable, resists compression, absorbs shock
    • location: between vertebrae, pubic symphysis, knees
  47. 2 ways for cartilage to grow
    • 1. appositional
    • 2. interstitual
  48. context: 2 ways for cartilage to grow
    appositional
    • 1 .cartilage added just beneath the surface of the perichondrium
    • 2. stem cells in the inner layer of perichondrium divide and differentiate into immature chondroblasts (secrete new matrix)
    • 3. chondroblasts mature into chondrocytes
    • 4. mostly occurs in utero
  49. context: 2 ways for cartilage to grow
    interstitial
    • 1. chondrocytes in matrix divide
    • 2. new matrix secreted
    • 3. in utero development through adolescence
  50. Bone remodeling overview
    • Occurs for lifetime
    • - 20% is turned over each year = 5 years to all turnover
    • -not all parts of bone is affected equally: more in femurs (spongy bone replaced 2-3 times a year)
  51. context: Bone remodeling
    5 reasons for varying remodeling
    • 1. age of individual
    • 2. physical activity and exercise
    • 3. circulating hormone levels
    • 4. rate of calcium and phosphate absorption/excretion
    • 5. genetic mutations or environmental factors
  52. context: 5 reasons for varying remodeling
    age of individual
    • childhood: deposition > resorption
    • maturity: deposition = resorption
    • aging: deposition < resorption
  53. context: 5 reasons for varying remodeling
    physical activity and exercise
    • stressed bones become thicker and stronger
    • stronger attachment sites for tendons
  54. context: 5 reasons for varying remodeling
    circulating hormone levels
    • alter the rate of deposition and resorption
    • endocrine disorders often affect the skeletal system
  55. context: 5 reasons for varying remodeling
    rate of calcium and phosphate absorption/excretion
    • for bone mass to remain constant, this must be balanced
    • renal problems can impact skeletal system
  56. context: 5 reasons for varying remodeling
    genetic mutations or environmental factors
  57. 3 metabolic bone disorders
    • 1. osteomalacia
    • 2. osteopenia
    • 3. osteoporosis
  58. context: 3 metabolic bone disorders
    osteomalacia
    • softening of the bones due to a lack of or inability to utilize vitamin D/cholecalciferol
    • ex: rickets: osteomalacia in children
  59. context: 3 metabolic bone disorders
    osteopenia
    • mild reduction in bone density
    • begins in 30s-40s
    • osteoblasts slow down, osteoclasts do not
    • women lose 8% per decade; men lose 3% per decade
    • may progress to osteoporosis
  60. context: 3 metabolic bone disorders
    osteoporosis
    • severe reduction in bone density
    • -effects function
    • -------
    • "porous bone"
    • normal mineralization, but bone density decreased (generalized or localized)
    • ~10 million Americans and 34 million more at risk
    • $17 billion/ year for costs
    • MOST COMMON metabolic bone disorder
    • resorption > deposition
  61. The risk factors of osteoporosis can be broken down to 2 types
    • 1) non-modifiable
    • 2) modifiable
  62. context: 2 types of risk factors for osteoporosis
    6 non-modifiable
    • 1. gender (females)
    • 2. race and genetics (asians/caucasians > hispanics > african americans
    • 3. family history
    • 4. advancing age
    • 5. post-menopausal
    • 6. small frame
  63. context: 2 types of risk factors for osteoporosis
    4 modifiable (things you can and should do to fix)
    • 1. inadequate diet
    • 2. alcohol, smoking, caffeine
    • 3. inadequate physical activity
    • 4. medications (ex: gluticorticoids, Warfarin, H+ pump inhibitors)
  64. 3 basic types of osteoporosis
    • 1. type 1 - post-menopausal
    • 2. type 2 - age-related
    • 3. type 3 - secondary
  65. context: 3 basic types of osteoporosis
    type 1
    • cause: low hormone levels
    • incidence: 50-70 yrs (women 3-6x)
    • bone affected: spongy > compact
  66. context: 3 basic types of osteoporosis
    type 2
    • cause: age
    • incidence: 70+ yrs (women 2x)
    • bone affected: spongy = compact
  67. context: 3 basic types of osteoporosis
    type 3
    • cause: medications, disease states
    • incidence: variable
    • bone affected: variable
  68. treating osteoporosis
    • vitamin D3
    • Greater calcium/vitamin d in diet or environment
    • exercise
    • reduce or eliminate modifiable risk factors (alcohol, caffeine, smoking)
    • hormone replacement therapy

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