Greece/Rome

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Greece/Rome
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  1. Name the Persian leader who fought the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon?
    Darius the Great
  2. He was a king of Macedonia and Greece. He conquered the entire Persian Empire from the Aegean Sea to India and around the Mediterranean to Egypt. He cut the Gordian knot. Name him.
    Alexander the Great
  3. Name the famous general from Carthage who led an attack against Rome during the Punic Wars by leading a force on elephants over the Alps and the Roman general who ultimately defeated him.
    Hannibal, Scipio Africanus
  4. The Athenians are often credited with developing a form of government called ...
    Democracy
  5. Name the members of the Second Triumvirate.
    Octavian, Lepidus, Mark Antony
  6. Name the members of the First Triumvirate.
    Crassus, Pompei, Julius Caesar.
  7. Name the twins who according to legend founded Rome.
    Romulus, Remus
  8. Name the general who led Athens’ disastrous attack against Sicily during the Peloponnesian War.
    Demosthenes
  9. Name the league to which Athens belonged but to which Sparta refused to join. Its chief aim was drive the Persians completely out of Greece.
    Delian League
  10. This city-state won the Peloponnesian War
    Sparta
  11. This pro-Spartan oligarchy was installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in April 404 BC. Their deeds included the murder of one of their own by hemlock for lack of ruthlessness and the removing of the laws of Ephialtes from the Areopagus. Name this group including Theramenes and Critias, the uncle of Plato, established in Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami by Lysander.
    Thirty Tyrants
  12. What important battle was fought in 378 between a Roman army led by the Emperor Valens and Germanic tribes and ended with an overwhelming victory for the Germanic tribes, thus setting the stage for the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century?
    (Second) Battle of Adrianople
  13. Name the famous naval battle in which the Greeks defeated the Persians and helped bring an end to the Persian War?
    Battle of Salamis
  14. What Greek wrote the first history of Greece's war with Persia and is called the 'Father of History'?
    Herodotus
  15. Name the Persian leader, son of Darius I, who was defeated by Athens in 480 BC.
    Xerxes
  16. Name the two Greek city-states that fought the Peloponnesian War?
    Athens, Sparta
  17. Believed to be the ideal king by Xenophon, his Stele tells how he captured Babylon without a battle and, according to the Bible, Daniel presented him with an ancient scroll of Isaiah on his entrance into Babylon. Identify this son of Cambyses I and founder, in 548 BC, of the Persian empire?
    Cyrus the Great
  18. Name the Spartan general who led the heroic stand at Thermopylae.
    Leonidas
  19. Name the famous battle during the Persian Wars when a small number of Greek soldiers held a mountain pass against a superior force of Persians, who found a way through a secret pass, and ultimately massacred every Greek soldier.
    Thermopylae
  20. Led by a prefect, it numbered upto 16,000 men who attended the emperor constantly. In 27 BC Augustus formally established What special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors?
    Praetorian Guard
  21. He came to power by killing the usurper Gautama, also known as Smerdis, in a coup which he recounted in the Behistun Inscription. He divided his empire into twenty provinces, each under the command of a satrap. He also built a road from Susa to his new capital, which replaced the former dynastic capital at Pasargadae. During his rule, he successfully put down rebellions in Sugartia and Susiana and waged war against the Scythians, but he was defeated in 490 B.C. by revolting Ionian city-states in the Battle of Marathon. Name this Persian king who was succeeded by Xerxes I.
    Darius I [Accept: Darius the Great]
  22. The mountainous terrain of Greece divides its people and cities into little states. In fact, they were called city-states. Four chief city-states were found in ancient Greece around 500 B.C. Name these four chief city-states.
    Sparta, Athens, Corinth, Thebes
  23. This empire was centered at Constantinople
    Byzantine Empire
  24. One conflict of this name saw the commander Philomelos throw himself off a cliff after the Battle of Neon, after which Onomarchos took control of the army. But he was soon defeated and his brother Phayllus took command after the Battle of the Crocus Field. The final one of these conflicts was fought against the Locrians of Amphissa while the semi-legendary first one arose when Kirrha attempted to collect a tax; its aftermath saw the complete destruction of the plain of Krissa, as approved by the members of the Amphictyonic League. The second one saw Phocis set up as the ruling power by the Athenians after being chased out by the Spartans, while the third and fourth of these conflicts were won by Philip II of Macedon. Give this series of four wars so named because they were fought over control of the oracle of Delphi.
    Sacred Wars
  25. What descriptive term named after a lawgiver in ancient Greece refers to laws that are unreasonably harsh?
    Draconian
  26. Who were the women in Rome who took vows of chastity and tended the sacred flame in the temple of the goddess Vesta?
    Vestal virgins
  27. After the death of Crassus, What river in Italy did Julius Caesar cross with his army in violation of the orders of Rome, leading to a long and bloody civil war that lasted until 45 BCE and the defeat of Pompey's forces?
    Rubicon
  28. Who said 'I came, I saw, I conquered'?
    Julius Caesar
  29. In 60 AD, what queen of the Iceni tribe revolted against Roman rule of England.
    Boudica (or Boadicea)
  30. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
    Charlemagne
  31. What Latin phrase refers to the long period of peace in the Roman Empire?
    Pax romana
  32. The first skirmish in them was fought on Mount Scorobas, and was followed by battles at Orchomenos and Chaeronea, both defeats for the general Archelaus. The second of them saw Lucius Murena take over the armies of Flavius Fimbria, after the first of these contests had been ended by the Treaty of Dardanus. The third saw an alliance with Tigranes the Great and battles at Cyzicus and Lycus. That conflict involved a commander named Lucius Lucullus, who was replaced by Pompey. Name this series of three wars against the Romans beginning around 90 B.C., named for the King of Pontus who instigated them.
    Mithridatic Wars
  33. Name the fifth century tribe of barbarians from western Asia known for their brutality?
    Huns
  34. Xenophon writes of the girls who played flutes during the first destruction of these things, which were ultimately a casualty of catapults during the First Mithridatic War. Though a Spartan army defeated their builders at Tangara during their construction, they were completed in time for Pericles to advise the Athenians to stay behind them. Name these fortifications, stretching over 6 miles, which connected Athens to the port at Piraeus.
    Long Walls
  35. Three wars between ancient Carthage and Rome in the third and second centuries
    Punic Wars
  36. Name the battle in which the ancient Greeks defeated a much larger Persian army. News was carried to Athens by a messenger who died upon delivering the message.
    Battle of (Marathon)
  37. Who was the Roman politician who hated Carthage and ended all his speeches with the words 'Carthage must be destroyed'?
    Cato
  38. According to one legend this historical figure received a signet ring from Honoria, the sister of Valentinian III, which he assumed was a marriage proposal. The leader of forces assembled by his uncle Rua, he killed the Visigothic king Theodoric I at a 451 battle near the Marne river. He died during the reign of Marcian and came to power after the death of his uncle Rua and after he killed his intended co-ruler, his brother Bleda. His rule was already on the decline before Aetius and a confederation of troops defeated him at Catalaunian Plains, or the Battle of Chalons in 451. What 5th century marauder was known as 'the scourge of God'?
    Attila (the Hun)
  39. What Greek philosopher, whose followers were called, cynics, continually walked the streets carrying a lamp and searching for an honest man?
    Diogenes
  40. What empire centered at Constantinople began as the eastern part of the Roman Empire?
    Byzantine (Empire)
  41. Current name of the city of Constantinople
    Istanbul
  42. What series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions helped to make a hero of Julius Caesar?
    Gallic Wars
  43. An outer garment for men in ancient Rome, worn as a sign of citizenship
    Toga
  44. An empire in western Asia in ancient times which, under the kings Darius and Xerxes, attempted to conquer Greece several times in the fifth century B.C. but were defeated in the Battle of Marathon and in several other land and sea battles.
    Persian Empire
  45. The Roman general who made himself dictator and was assassinated by his friend Brutus and others on the ides of March in 44 B.C
    Julius Caesar
  46. The period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. to the middle of the first century B.C. It was marked by Greek and Macedonian emigration to areas conquered by Alexander and by the spread of Greek civilization from Greece to northern India
    Hellenistic Age
  47. The language of ancient Rome
    Latin
  48. This ancient Greek astronomer, living in Egypt, proposed that the sun and the planets revolve around the earth
    Ptolemy
  49. In an attempt to imitate Agamemnon, he planned to offer a sacrifice to the gods at Aulis before an expedition to Ionia. However, he was unsuccessful due to the intervention of the Thebans, who rankled under the dominance of his polis. Once in Asia Minor, he met with great success in battle against the Persians, but in 395 BC he was called back to Greece, to defend his city against the allied forces of Athens, Thebes, and Corinth in the battle of Coronea. Despite being the Eurypontid king of Sparta, this son of Archidamus II later led a mercenary army to aid the Egyptians against Persia. Name this king who saw the decline of Sparta after her victory in the Peloponnesian Wars, a man who is paired with Pompey in Plutarch's Lives and who succeeded his brother Agis II.
    Agesilaus II
  50. The rule of this Greek leader of Athens is sometimes known as the Golden Age of Greece
    Pericles
  51. Who conquered not only Media but Lydia as well and is considered the greatest Persian ruler?
    Cyrus the Great
  52. He fought in the Peloponnesian War and later wrote a history of the war
    Thucydides
  53. A long war between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in the fifth century B.C.
    Peloponnesian War
  54. Towards the end of his life George Dumezil wrote a book on this Roman hero, noting that his battles involving sudden assaults at daybreak may suggest that he was actually a solar deity made mortal. Builder of the Temple of Concordia later in life to celebrate the Sexto-Licinian laws in 367, he was paired with Themistocles by Plutarch because like him he won a great victory for his community and was later exiled, though unlike the Greek this man returned to Rome after his exile at Veii, which he had earlier captured, to aid the Romans in their darkest hour in 396 BCE. Name this Roman who defeated and reclaimed the spoil taken by Brennus and the Gauls and was revered as a second Romulus for his direction of the rebuilding of the city.
    Furius or Marcus Furius Camillus
  55. He fought his last battle at Eurymedon, where he led a Seleucid fleet. He fought to a draw at Crotona, and was recalled after his side's defeat at Bagbrades, a few years after his brother's death at Metaurus River. This was a far cry from such early victories as Trebia and Lake Trasimene. During the second of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome, he took an army of more than 100,000, supported by elephants, across the Alps into Italy in an effort to conquer Rome. Name this son of Hamilcar Barca and great Carthaginian general of the Second Punic War.
    Hannibal
  56. He died in pitched battle at Pistoia while fleeing for his life. He made his name during the Social War, while serving with Pompey under the forces of Pompeius Strabo. It was actually the ambassadors of the Celtic Allobroges tribe and his mistress that would prove his undoing. These details are mostly found in the biography of him written by Sallust. Sallust also relates that after serving as governor of Africa, this man was barred from running for consul and how his attempt to circumvent the ban led to Cicero's series of orations against him. Identify this namesake of a 63 BC conspiracy that was an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate.
    Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
  57. One of the main events of the Fall of Rome was the plundering of the city of Rome by this invading tribe
    Vandals
  58. The greatest orator of ancient Greece. He is said to have overcome a childhood stutter by forcing himself to speak with pebbles in his mouth. He delivered speeches called Philippics attacking King Philip of Macedon, who was an enemy of Athens.
    Demosthenes
  59. A city of the Roman Empire, on the Italian seacoast, that was known for the luxury and dissipated ways of its citizens and was destroyed in the first century by an eruption of nearby Mount Vesuvius
    Pompeii
  60. Literally meaning "war leader", what position was originally a commander of the army, but later it became the chief magistrate of ancient Athens?
    Polemarch
  61. Name the Visigoth king killed at the Battle of Vouillé.
    Alaric
  62. During the decline of the Roman Empire, what great Ostrogoth leader effectively became king of Italy?
    Theodoric
  63. In the Roman Empire, what name was given to the upper class of Roman citizens?
    Patricians
  64. In the Roman Empire, what name was given to the lower class of Roman citizens?
    Plebians
  65. Name the battle in which Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra.
    Battle of) Actium
  66. He unleashed the First Coalition War after falling foul of the regent Perdiccas, and then took command of the campaign against Eumenes of Cardia. His 316 BCE victory at Gabiene gave him control of all the land between the Aegean and the Hindu Kush. The Peace of the Dynasts temporarily solidified his position, and he tried to revive Philip's Corinthian League as a defense against Cassander and his other enemies, but he was finally killed in 301 BCE at the battle of Ipsus. Name this general under Alexander the Great, a rival of Ptolemy and Seleucus.
    Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
  67. The first group under this name was formed for mutual protection against pirates, though not much else is known. This group's second and more famous incarnation was founded in order to free Sicyon from tyranny and fell under the leadership of Aratus. It fell into conflict with Cleomenes III of Sparta and sought Macedonian aid against the Aetolian League in 227 BCE. Later, the Romans deported this organization's leaders, including Polybius, and defeated them at the Battle of Corinth. Identify this group of Greek city-states whose goal was Greek liberty.
    Achaean League
  68. Name the German who ultimately ousted the last Roman Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus, and took his place.
    Odoacer
  69. This man was appointed king of the empire upon the death of his father in battle against the Massagetes. He served as king of Babylon for a year, but later resigned after a faux pas at a religious festival and was made satrap of Bactria. After marrying Phaidymia, daugther of Otanes, it is said that he slew is brother Smerdis in order to protect his reign. He went on to fight Samos under Polycrates, who was allied with the Egyptians under the pharaoh Amasis in 525 BCE. Identify this second Achaemenid king and successor to Cyrus the Great.
    Cambyses II
  70. Name the Greek architect known for his statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympia and Athena in the Parthenon.
    Phidias
  71. A famous battle in the fifth century B.C., in which the ancient Greeks defeated a much larger army of the Persian Empire. News of the victory was carried to Athens, a distance of about twenty-six miles, by a messenger who collapsed and died of exhaustion after delivering his message
    Battle of Marathon
  72. What famous Athenian lawmaker who repealed most of the laws of Draco was given the task of rewriting the constitution, which incorporated the first elements of democracy in world history?
    Solon
  73. Name the Germanic tribe that took over most of south-western France and Spain during the collapse of the Roman Empire but were ultimately defeated and driven out by the Franks.
    Visigoths
  74. What empire, who leaders included Cyrus and Cambyses, was defeated by the Greeks at Marathon in 490 B.C.E.?
    Persians
  75. What Athenian statesman, nicknamed "the Just" did Plato called the only man in Athens worth admiring?
    Aristides
  76. In ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy elected ten generals each year, one for each of the ten 'tribes'. What name was given to each of these ten generals?
    Strategos
  77. What name was given to the chief magistrate in many Greek cities?
    Archon
  78. Name the Roman general who became dictator of Rome after the Civil War in 81 BC.
    Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  79. Name the general who fought against Lucius Sulla in the Civil War?
    Gaius Marius
  80. What Roman writer penned "Parallel Lives", a biographical collection about the emperors of Rome?
    Plutarch
  81. What ancient Greek who established the world's first democracy in 500 BC, with power being held by an assembly of all the male citizens?
    Cleisthenes
  82. The Goths were a Germanic Tribe that originated where?
    Scandanavia
  83. The Huns were a group of Nomads from where?
    Asia
  84. What commander of the Spartan fleet was victorious against the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC and took Athens itself the following year, bringing the Peloponnesian War to an end?
    Lysander
  85. According to some reports, his mother was Abrotonon of Thrace or Euterpe of Caria, but it was certain that he was related to the Lycomedea through his father Neocles. As archon, he sponsored the first efforts to make the defensible rock bays of Piraeus into harbors, but in general suffered from a reputation as a slick politician willing to profit through war. Unlike many older Athenians, he had the foresight to realize that the battle of Marathon would not end the war against the Persians, prompting him to urge for expansion of the navy and the building of triremes. Name this general who tricked Xerxes into initiating the naval engagement at Salamis.
    Themistocles
  86. In the Roman Empire, in what major facility were chariot races held?
    Circus Maximus
  87. Bagoas poisoned his predecessors, Artaxerxes III and Arses, but this king forced Bagoas to drink the poison himself. The League of Corinth was formed to free the Greek cities under his control, and when Charidemus critiqued his battle plans, this ruler had Charidemus executed. The downfall of this last Achaemenid ruler began with the loss of the Battle of the Granicus, and he allowed his own family to get captured at the Battle of Issus. Identify this Persian king who got slapped around by Alexander the Great.
    Darius III (accept Codommanus)
  88. The codification of ancient Roman law was found in a document known as ...
    The) Twelve Tables
  89. Warfare in Ancient Greece centered mainly around heavy infantrymen given what name?
    Hoplites
  90. Name the main city of the Minoan civilization.
    Knossos
  91. What do we call the period of Greek civilization after the death of Alexander the Great and before the Greece was annexed by Rome?
    Hellenistic
  92. What name was given to a professional Roman officer who commanded a group of about 100 Roman infantrymen?
    Centurion
  93. Name this Roman slave who led an insurrection of slaves in the first century.
    Spartacus
  94. What legendary lawgiver of Sparta established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi?
    Lycurgus
  95. Name the Germanic tribe that ultimately sacked Rome in 410 AD.
    Vandals
  96. This man commanded troops at the Battle of Ad Decimum, or Ten Mile Post, where he nearly saw defeat until the fall of Ammatus allowed his troops to triumph, and after that he won an easy victory at the Battle of Tricameron. Earlier, this commander's army had seen defeat at the hands of Azarethes in the Battle of Callinicum, after which the emperor signed the 'Endless Peace'. He was ordered to depose Pope Silverius in favor of Vigilius, an act for which he later repented, and he married Antonina, a court favorite who wielded a good deal of influence. Along with Mundus, he reported to the Hippodrome to suppress a certain disturbance, and he was later replaced with the eunuch Narses. Name the greatest general of the Byzantine Empire that was sent by the Roman Emperor Justinian to re-take Africa from the Vandals.
    Belisarius
  97. The Trojan War occurred during what Greek civilization that had destroyed the Minoans?
    Mycenaean
  98. In ancient Greece, hoplites fought in a dense formation of men, sometimes 1,000 men long and 10-20 ranks deep whose effectiveness came in the fact that the shields of each man overlapped the next, creating an almost solid wall. What was this formation called?
    Phalanx
  99. In ancient Greece, this entity included the city or town and the surrounding countryside, but differed from modern cities in that it was autonomous, that is not controlled by a larger regional or national government. What is this entity that begins with the letter ‘P’?
    Polis
  100. What was the last name of last names of two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, who went down in history as two martyrs to the cause of social reform as both were killed by members of the Senate for attempting to make the system more friendly to the lower classes of Rome?
    Gracchus
  101. Perhaps the most famous Etruscan was this last King of Rome. It was his son, Sextus, who committed the Rape of Lucretia that prompted his downfall.
    Tarquin II or Tarquin the Proud or Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
  102. What scholar and tutor of Nero was accused of treason and ultimately committed suicide?
    Seneca
  103. What decree issued by Constantine legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire?
    Edict of Milan
  104. What noted Roman orator became known as the "Father of Latin Prose"?
    Cicero
  105. The battle began a seven-year war which established the Rhine as the boundary of the Roman Empire for the next four hundred years, until the decline of the Roman influence in the West. Identify this battle that place in the year 9 A.D. when an alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius ambushed and destroyed three Roman legions.
    (Battle of) Teutoburg Forest
  106. Name and Ordinal. Who was the father of Alexander the Great?
    Phillip II
  107. What was the capital and the showcase city of the Persian Empire?
    Perseopolis
  108. Name the blind Greek poet who wrote "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey".
    Homer
  109. Name the first of the three great Greek writers of tragedy and the predecessor of Sophocles and Euripides?
    Aeschylus
  110. Who was the Greek writer of comedy?
    Aristophanes
  111. Name the famous Greek philosopher and teacher of Plato who was imprisoned and executed by being forced to drink hemlock.
    Socrates
  112. Name the famous Greek philosopher and teacher of Aristotle founded a school called the Academy.
    Plato
  113. Name the famous Greek philosopher and tutor of Alexander the Great founded a school called the Lyceum.
    Aristotle
  114. Plato called her the "Tenth Muse". Name this famous Greek female writer of erotic poetry who lived on the island of Lesbos.
    Sappho
  115. Name the centermost hill of the seven hills upon which Romulus and Remus were discovered and upon which the city of Rome was first built.
    Palatine Hill
  116. How many Punic Wars were fought between Rome and Carthage?
    Three (3)
  117. What Roman poet was known for his odes?
    Horace
  118. What Roman wrote "The Art of Love" and "Metamorphoses"?
    Ovid
  119. The site for this battle was chosen after the general Arimnestus had a dream in which Zeus told him that the Greeks had misinterpreted the Delphic Oracle, and that there was a plain of Eleusinian Demeter nearby on which they could fight. The death of the popular Masistius in a skirmish, and unfavorable omens on both sides, delayed the start of this battle for eight days. Then the poisoning of the Gargaphia spring forced the Greeks to move. The subsequent retreat into the foothills of Mount Cithaeron prompted the Persians to attack, but the Spartan line held, and the Persian general was killed. That general, Mardonius, was killed by Pausanius' forces in, what decisive Greek victory over the Persians in 479 BC?
    Battle of Plataea
  120. This Greek navigator and geographer who explored the western coastline of Europe' Identify this man who as the first Greek to visit the British Isles, and who may have sailed as far north as Iceland.
    Pytheas [PITH-e-us]
  121. Name the large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth that was the location of ancient Sparta?
    Peloponnese or Peloponnesus
  122. What was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire?
    Consul
  123. What name was given to elected magistracies and other governmental offices of the Roman Republic and Empire that were representatives of the plebians?
    Tribune
  124. Name the battle in which Hannibal defeated the Romans, destroying a force of 80,000 Romans.
    Cannae
  125. How many Punic Wars were fought?
    Three
  126. In which of the Punic Wars did Rome finally succeed in destroying the city of Carthage?
    Third
  127. In which of the Punic Wars did Hannibal lead his troops on elephants across the Alps?
    Second
  128. The groundwork for this battle was laid by a successful surprise attack during the siege of Utica. The Roman force arranged itself in columns with hastati in front, separated by velites. Laelius' cavalry quickly succeed on the Roman left in this battle whose site Livy identified as Naraggara. Nevertheless, a timely maneuver by the Numidian cavalry under Masinissa allowed the Romans to outflank and destroy the Carthaginians in what 202 BCE battle in which Scipio Africanus neutralized Hannibal's war elephants?
    Battle of Zama
  129. The heart of the Roman government was what body that advised the consuls and other magistrates and ran the day to day operations of Roman government?
    Senate
  130. They led the Persian Army. Name this group that had earned its name because its number never fell below 10,000.
    The Immortals
  131. They consisted of Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, and Capitoline. Give the collective name of thse structure upon which the city of Rome was built.
    Seven Hills (of Rome)
  132. What name was given to the Jewish extremists who worked and fought to rid Judea of the Romans?
    Zealots
  133. Name the Hellenistic empire of Asia Minor centered in Syria and founded after the death of Alexander the Great by Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals.
    Seleucid Empire
  134. Give the term referring to Spartan slaves considered to be state property. They were assigned to both agricultural and military tasks.
    Helots
  135. The ancient Greeks called their land Hellas. From this name comes what name of the great age of Greek civilization that began taking shape about 800 BC?
    Hellenic
  136. This Athenian statesman and military leader, regarded as both brilliant and unscrupulous, rose to prominence during the Peloponnesian War when Athenian power was declining. What man rallied the Athenians to an alliance against Sparta, was involved in a disastrous campaign in Sicily in 415 B.C. and fled to Sparta when falsely charged with defacing sacred statues.
    Alcibiades [al-si-BYE-uh-deez]
  137. They ruled Rome, as the legendary 'Tarquin kings', but were expelled around 509 B.C., according to tradition. They are believed to have emigrated to Italy from the Near East around the 12th century B.C. They initiated trade with the Greeks, and their navy virtually dominated the Mediterranean in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. Identify this group eventually conquered and replaced by the Romans.
    Etruscans
  138. This secret mixture ignited on contact with water and was used effectively against Arab fleets in naval battles. Identify this Flammable substance used by the Byzantines in warfare from the 7th century.
    Greek Fire
  139. He eventually founded 7 colonies and may have reached Sierra Leone. What 5th century Carthaginian navigator led a fleet of ships along the West coast of Africa for the purpose of establishing new colonies?
    Hanno
  140. This unit of the Roman army generally consisted of 4,000-6,000 infantrymen arranged in 8 ranks as well as other units, such as cavalry, were also part of this group. Identify this unit of the Roman army used from about 400 B.C. to the time of the German invasions.
    Legion
  141. This Roman general, called 'the sword of Rome' was five times consul of Rome. Identify this Roman general who conquered Syracuse in 212 B.C. and died while fighting against Hannibal.
    (Marcus Claudius) Marcellus
  142. At this Roman bridge over the Tiber, Constantine defeated Maxentius in 312 A.D., and thus became sole ruler in the western Roman Empire. Identify this bridge where Constatine also saw the vision of a cross in the sky that led him to adopt Christianity.
    Milvian (Bridge)
  143. The banishment lasted 10 years. identify the term for the Greek political banishment imposed by Athenians on those disrupting local stability
    Ostracism
  144. One legend claims that he created a standard text of Homer by comparing then-extant variants from all over Greece. His military achievements included controlling Naxos and Sigeum and winning the Battle of Pallene, which was his third attempt at bringing tyranny to his previously oligarchic city. He established Athenian hegemony in Ionia, sponsored extensive pubic building, passed important land laws, and commissioned a definitive edition of Homer. Identify this Greek statesman and tyrant of Athens.
    Pisistratus [Pice-e-strah-tus]
  145. In In ancient Roman government, what name was given to a class of officers and magistrates to whom authority was delegated.
    Prefect
  146. After the Battle of Salamis, Xerxes returned to Persia and abandoned his army led by this commander, who was killed at the Battle of Plataea?
    Mardonius
  147. They originally featured musical contests in honor of Apollo at Delphi but athletic contests were added in imitation of the Olympic Games after 582 B.C. Identify these ancient Greek games took their name from the priestess of the oracle at Delphi.
    Pythian (Games)
  148. This name was given provincial governors of the ancient Persian Empire. In general, what term refered to someone who administered the province, collected taxes, and was the supreme judge.
    Satrap

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