Chapter 9 - Joints

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Chapter 9 - Joints
2010-10-03 15:36:39

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  1. joint
    (articulation) any point where two bones meet
  2. arthrology
    the science of joint structure, function, and dysfunction
  3. kinesiology
    study of musculoskeletal movement
  4. joints (listing)
    • bony joints
    • fibrous joints
    • cartilaginous joints
    • synovial joints
  5. bony joint
    synostosis; an immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become a single bone
  6. bony joints can form by:
    ossification of fibrous or cartilagenous joints
  7. fibrous joints
    • synarthrosis or synarthrodial joint
    • -the point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and penetrate into the other
  8. three kinds of fibrous joints
    • sutures
    • gomphoses
    • syndesmoses
  9. sutures
    immovable or slightly movable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other; occur nowhere else
  10. gomphosis
    the attachment of a tooth to its socket
  11. the tooth is held tightly in place by a fibrous periodontal ligament
    - which consists of collagen fibers that extend from the bone matrix of the jaw into the dental tissue
  12. syndesmosis
    a fibrous joint at which two bones are bound by longer collagenous fibers than in a suture or gomphosis, giving the bone more mobility
  13. cartilaginous joint
    • amphiarthrosis or amphiarthrodial joint
    • - two bones are linked by cartilage
  14. two types of cartilaginous joints:
    • synchondroses
    • symphyses
  15. synchondrosis
    a joint at which the bones are bound by hyaline cartilage
  16. symphysis
    two bones are joined by fibrocartilage
  17. synovial joint
    • most familiar type of joint
    • -diarthrosis or diarthrodial joint
  18. in synovial joints, the facing surfaces of the two bones are covered with articular cartilage
    - a layer of hyaline cartilage usually about 2 or 3 mm thick
  19. these surfaces are seperated by a narrow space,
    the joint (articular) cavity
  20. the joint (articular) cavity contains a slippery lubricant called
    • synovial fluid
    • - rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid
  21. joint (articular) capsule
    encloses the cavity and retains the fluid
  22. synovial membrane
    composed mainly of fibroblast-like cells that secrete the fluid, and is populated by microphages that remove the debris from the joint cavity
  23. meniscus
    • crescent shaped
    • absorbs shock and pressure, guides the bone across each other, improve the fit between the bones and stabilizes the joint, reduces the chance of dislocation
  24. tendon
    attaches a muscle to a bone
  25. ligament
    attaches bone to bone
  26. bursa
    • where a tendon passes over a bone, or between bone and skin
    • - cushions muscles, helps tendons slide easily over the joints
  27. tendon sheaths
    • elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendon
    • - in the hands and feet
  28. longs bone:
    act as levers to enhance the speed or power of limb movement
  29. types of levers (resistance, effort, fulcrum)
    • 1. first class lever - RFE
    • 2. second class lever - FRE
    • 3. third class lever - REF
  30. range of motion ROM
    the degree through which a joint can move; joint flexibility
  31. 6 types of synovial joints
    • ball & socket joints
    • condylar (ellipsoid) joints
    • saddle joints
    • plane (gliding) joints
    • hinge joints
    • pivot joints
  32. flexion
    movement that decreases a joint angle, common at hinge joints
  33. extension
    movement that straightens a joint and generally returns a body part to the zero position
  34. hyperextension
    extension of the joint beyond the zero position
  35. abduction
    movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
  36. adduction
    movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline
  37. elevation
    a movement that raises a body party vertically in the frontal plane
  38. depression
    lowers a body part in the same plane
  39. protraction
    anterior movement of a body part in the transverse (horizontal) plane
  40. retraction
    posterior movement
  41. circumduction
    one end of an appendage remains fairly stationary while the other end makes a circular motion
  42. rotation
    movement in which a bone spins on its longitudinal axis
  43. supination
    a movement that turns the palms to face anteriorly or upward
  44. pronation
    movement that turns the palm to face posteriorly or downward
  45. lateral excursion
    movement to the left or right of the zero position
  46. medial excursion
    movement back to the median, zero position
  47. opposition
    to move the thumb to touch the tip of any of the other four fingers
  48. reposition
    the return of the thumb to the zero position
  49. dorsiflexion
    a movement in which the toes are elevated
  50. plantar flexion
    movement of the foot so that the toes point downward
  51. inversion
    a foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other
  52. eversion
    movement that tips the soles laterally, away from each other
  53. tibiofemoral (knee) joint
    largest and most complex diarthrosis of the body
  54. the patella and patellar ligament articulate with the femur to form a gliding:
    patellofemoral joint
  55. the joint cavity contains two C-shaped cartilages called:
    lateral meniscus and medial meniscus
  56. the lateral meniscus and the medial meniscus are joined by:
    a transverse ligament
  57. popliteal region
    of the knee is supported by extracapsular ligaments and intracapsular ligaments
  58. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
    prevents hyperextension
  59. Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
    prevents the femur from sliding off the front of the tibia and prevents the tibia from being displaced backward
  60. osteoarthritis (OA)
    "wear and tear arthritis" normal consequences of years of wear and tear on the joints
  61. rheumatoid arthritis
    results from an autoimmune attack against the joint tissues