Intro to Evanth

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Intro to Evanth
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Exam 1
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  1. What is anthropology?
    • The study of Humankind.
    • The study of all aspects of the human species including our biology from a evolutionary perspective.
  2. Subfields of Anthropology
    • 1. Cultural Anthropology
    • 2. Archaeology
    • 3. Physical Anthropology
    • 4. Linguistics
  3. Cultural Anthropology
    Study of all aspects of human behavior
  4. Archaeology
    • Study of early cultures and lifestyles to answer questions about human behavior.
    • Artifacts and material culture left behind by civilizations provide information about the nature of the society.
    • Looking at human history.
  5. Linguistic Anthropology
    • Study of the origin of language and human speech
    • Acquisition and use of language is a unique human characteristic.
    • Relationship between culture and language. (How does language shape perceptions?)
  6. Physical Anthropology
    Study of human biology within framework of evolution.
  7. Physical Anthropology Before 1951
    • Osteometry - measuring defleshed bones
    • Anthropometry - measurement of human body parts ("bones with flesh"-- example "sitting height")
    • Racial taxonomy - (found to be unreliable because continuum trying to discreetly divide.)
  8. Physical Anthropology After 1951
    • Sherwood L. Washburn
    • Experimental anatomy - functional anatomy (example ball and socket joint)
    • Population genetics - difference in genetics between populations
    • Field work - deal with people or primates in real world settings.
    • ---However, still use old methods---
  9. Subfields of Physical Anthropology
    • 1. Bones and teeth
    • 2. Determination of age, sex, etc.
    • 3. Human Growth
    • 4. Body composition
    • 5. Body build
    • 6. Blood groups
    • 7. Biochemical human genetics
    • 8. Evolutionary factors
    • 9. Primate studies
  10. Bones and Teeth
    • Give information about age, sex, disease and injury.
    • Age - sutures on skull and long bones fuse at known ages.
    • Sex - different pelvic bone structures and characteristics (ex. female is smooth, males isn't).
    • Disease and injury - displayed through calcifications.
  11. Human Growth
    Head to body size proportions. Body proportions change throughout life.
  12. Body Composition
    How much of the body is water, muscle and fat.
  13. Body Build
    Not used much because is actually a continuum.
  14. Blood Types and Populations
    • Certain blood types are more common to certain ethnic groups.
    • O+ is the most common blood type.
    • Hispanics have a high number of Os while Asians have a high number of Bs.
  15. Evolution Factors
    • mutation
    • gene flow/migration
    • genetic drift/sampling error
    • natural selection
    • founder effect
  16. Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis - Problem formation
    • Test the hypothesis through data collection and analysis of the data
    • If the hypothesis is verified it becomes a theory. A theory is a tested explanation of facts, not facts themselves.
  17. Development of Evolutionary Theory Background
    • Diversity and Unity -- because of evolution
    • Genetic change is what brings about behavioral change and other physical change.
  18. Ontogeny
    Development of individual -- example body proportion changes.
  19. Phylogeny
    Historical development of groups of organisms.
  20. Evolution
    • The change of gene frequency from one generation to another.
    • A change in the genetic structure of a population.
  21. The Actors in the Path to Natural Selection
    • 1. Carolus Linnaeus
    • 2. John Baptiste Lamarck
    • 3. Charles Darwin
    • 4. Alfred Wallace
  22. Carolus Linnaeus
    Developed a system of classification and laid the basis for taxonomy
  23. John Baptiste Lamarck
    The first scientist to produce an explanation for the evolutionary process.
  24. Charles Darwin
    Added the idea of variability and survival of the fittest (natural selection).
  25. Alfred Wallace
    Independently developed the idea of variability and survival of the fittest (natural selection).
  26. Giraffe's Long Neck
    • Lamarck -- though was need-based evolution. Giraffe has a long neck because needed to reach high branches
    • Darwin -- natural selection, variability and long necks were most fit so more offspring survived.
  27. Genes
    • The sequence of DNA bases are responsible for the synthesis of a protein.
    • Alleles are alternate forms of a gene.
  28. How many chromosomes do humans have?
    • 46 chromosomes.
    • 23 chromosome pairs.
  29. Locus
    The position on a chromosome where a give gene occurs
  30. Mutation
    • When the sequence of bases in a gene is altered.
    • Caused by environment (example Sun, X-rays, etc)
    • Mutation is the only source of variation. Evolution wouldn't happen otherwise.
  31. Gene Flow
    Exchange of genes between populations. Normally an individual moving between populations.
  32. Genetic Drift
    Change in gene frequency because of random factors.
  33. Natural Selection
    Genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproduction success between individuals.
  34. Process of Natural Selection
    • Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation.
    • Variations accumulate so later generations may be distinct from ancestral ones.
    • As populations respond to pressures over time, they may become distinct species descended from a common ancestor.
    • Species produce offspring faster rate than food supplies increase. More individuals than can survive.
    • Individuals that possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and produce offspring than those who do not.
  35. Reproductive Success
    The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age.
  36. Selective Pressures
    Forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals.
  37. Fitness
    in terms of natural selection, a measure of relative reproductive success.
  38. Binomial nomenclature
    Convention whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species.
  39. Natural Selection Constraints
    • 1. Trait must be inherited to have importance.
    • 2. Cannot occur without variation in the inherited characteristics.
    • 3. Fitness is a relative measure that will change as the environment changes.
  40. Founder Effect
    • A type of genetic drift.
    • Allele frequencies are altered in small populations taken from or remains of larger populations.
  41. Adaptive Radiation
    • Occurs when a group of organisms find a habitat which has unexploited opportunities such as food.
    • Example - Honey-creeper of Hawaii
    • Ancestor-like
    • Nectar sipping
    • Seed cracking
    • Woodpecker-like
  42. Modern Evolutionary Theory.
    Two Stage Process:
    • 1. Production and distribution of variation.
    • 2. Natural selection acting on this variation.
  43. Evolution is not occurring if:
    • 1. Population is infinitely large
    • 2. No mutation
    • 3. No gene flow
    • 4. Natural selection is not operating
    • 5. Mating is random
  44. Primate as Mammals
    • There are over 4,000 species of mammals.
    • Primates are members of the placental subgroups.
    • There are approximately 190 (now 422) species of nonhuman primates.
  45. Mammalian Charateristics
    • Warm-blooded = homiotherms. Have more or less a constant body temperature. Poikilotherms represents environment temperature.
    • Heterodontism - different teeth for different function
    • Reproductive economy - fewer offspring than other animals.
    • Inquisitive behavior
  46. Heterodontism. Teeth Type:
    • Incisors - to strip and clear
    • Canine - fighting or cracking
    • Premolars - slicing
    • Molars - grinding
  47. Characteristics of Primates:
    • 1. Pentadactyly
    • 2. Nails instead of claws
    • 3. Bony eye socket
    • 4. Mobil digits
    • 5. Shortened nose
    • 6. Smell less important
    • 7. Vision more important
    • 8. Elaboration of brain
    • 9. Better gestation/longer infant dependency
  48. Pentadactyly
    5 digits on hands and feet.
  49. Nails rather than claws
    Claws interfere with grasping ability.
  50. Bony eye socket
    Eye socket completely surrounded by bone (sides and back).
  51. Mobil Digits
    • High degree of grasping ability.
    • Opposable thumb and partially opposable great toe (except humans).
    • Tactile pads enriched with sensory nerve fibers at the end of digits.
  52. Shorter Nose
    • Face gets shorter and flatter.
    • Decreased reliance on the sense of smell (olfaction).
  53. Vision More Important
    • Color vision (except for nocturnal primates).
    • Depth perception.
  54. Brain Complexity
    Expansion and increased complexity of the brain.
  55. Maturation, Learning, and Behavior
    • Longer gestation.
    • Fewer offspring.
    • Delayed maturation.
    • Longer life span.
    • Greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior.
    • Tendency to live in social groups.
    • Tendency of diurnal (day/night) activity patterns.
  56. Explanation for different characteristics
    • Arboreal Hypothesis
    • Visual Predation Hypothesis
  57. Arboreal Hypothesis
    • Primate characteristics can be explained as a consequence of primate diversification in arboreal habitats.
    • Doesn't work. Squirrels.
  58. Visual Predation Hypothesis
    Primates may have first adapted to shrubby forest undergrowth and the lowest tiers of the forest canopy, where they captured insects and other small prey primarily through stealth.
  59. Primate Taxonomy
    Primates --> Prosimians and Anthropoids. Anthropoids --> Platyrrhine and Catarrhine.
  60. Nose Type of Anthropoids
    • Platyrrhine -- New World (South and Central America), broad nose.
    • Catarrhine -- Old World, narrow nose.
  61. Prosimians (Lemurs, Lorises, Galagoes)
    • Characteristics:
    • Small body size
    • Relay on olfaction/wet nose
    • Resemble primate ancestor
    • Nonprimate appearance (compared to ape and monkeys)
    • Tethered upper lip (can't pull lip away from teeth)

    Living lemurs only found on the island of Madagascar.
  62. Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes, Humans)
    • Characteristics:
    • Larger brain and body size
    • Dry nose
    • Greater degree of color vision
    • Mobile upper lip
    • Longer gestation and maturation periods
    • Fused mandible
  63. Prosimian pattern
    • Characteristics:
    • Many nocturnal
    • Dental specialization - the "dental comb" - lower teeth slanted forwarded, used for grooming
    • Grooming claw/toilet claw.
    • Dental formula 2133/2133 (ICPM) 36 teeth total
  64. New World Monkey Patterns (Ceboids or Playarrhines)
    • Characteristics:
    • Prehensile tail -- only primate to have, but not all new worlds have it
    • All arboreal
    • Only one nocturnal
    • Male care for young
    • Dental formula 2133/2133
  65. Old World Primate Pattern (Monkey, apes, humans - Catarrhines)
    • Characteristics:
    • No prehensile tail
    • All diurnal
    • Dental formula 2123/2123
  66. Distribution of Old World Monkeys
    • Asian ape - Arboreal - Orangutans and Gibbons
    • African ape - Arboreal and terrestrial - Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Gorillas
  67. Lemur catta
    • Ringtailed lemur
    • Madagascar
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Plants only
    • Females dominant
  68. Alouatta palliata
    • Mantled howling monkey
    • Central and South America
    • Arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Plant material
    • Linear dominance hierarchy
  69. Alouatta palliata
    • Mantled howling monkey
    • Central and South America
    • Arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Plant material
    • Linear dominance hierarchy
  70. Erythrocebus patas
    • Patas monkey
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Terrestrial
    • Quadrupedal
    • Folivore (mostly plants, meat rarely)
    • One-male harem
  71. Cercopithecus aethiops
    • Vervet monkey
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Omnivorous
    • Multi-male, multi-female.
  72. Papio cynocephalus
    • Common baboon
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Omnivorous
    • Multi-male, multi-female
  73. Papio hamadryas
    • Hamadryas baboon
    • Northeast Africa (Ethiopia and Sudan)
    • Terrestrial
    • Quadrupedal
    • Folivore
    • One-male harem
  74. Theropithecus gelada
    • Gelada baboon
    • Northeast Africa (Ethiopia and Sudan)
    • Terrestrial Quadruped
    • Folivore
    • One-male harem
  75. Macaca Fuscata
    • Japanese monkey
    • Only on Japan
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Omnivorous
    • Multi-male/Multi-female
  76. Presbytes entellus
    • Hanuman langur
    • Asia - India and Pakistan
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Folivore
    • Multi-male, muti-female and one-male harems.
  77. Hylobates lar
    • Gibbon
    • South East Asia
    • Arboreal
    • Brachiator (rapid arm swinging)
    • Fruit and leaves
    • Pair bonded
  78. Gorilla gorilla
    • Gorilla
    • Central Africa
    • Terrestrial and arboreal
    • Quadrupedal
    • Folivores
    • Silver-back males
  79. Habitats
    • Forest
    • Gallery forest
    • Woodlands (trees interspersed with open areas)
    • Savannah
  80. Purpose of studying prehistoric primates
    • Useful for interpreting evolution of primate line
    • Better understanding of the forces of evolution
    • Fuller knowledge of the evolutionary process producing tool makers and thinkers
  81. Look at living's functional systems to help with fossils:
    • Locomotive
    • Feeding
    • Information/brains
    • Social Behavior
  82. Kinds of Locomotion
    • Bipedal - using two limbs for support.
    • Quadrupedal - using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion.
    • Brachiation - hanging by the hands and support is alternated from one limb to the other, arm swinging. Preadapted for bipedalism.
    • Vertical clinging and leaping - body oriented in upright position. Preadapted for bipedalism.
  83. Bipedal Locomotion Characteristics
    • Length and orientation of muscles different for quadrupedal and bipedal primates.
    • Angle of femur is different.
    • Foot is positioned differently.
    • Pelvis shaped differently. (Angle of muscle attachment).
  84. Hominoids & Hominids Shared Characteristics
    • Broad thorax
    • Reduced lumbar region
    • Scapula location
    • Clavicle position
    • Position of arm socket
    • Long arms relative to trunk
    • Broad pelvis
  85. Broad Thorax
  86. Reduced Lumbar Region
  87. Scapula Location. Clavicle Position. Position of arm socket.
  88. Long Arms to trunk
  89. Broad Pelvis
  90. Hominids Only
    • S-shaped spine
    • Non-divergent big toe
    • Arched foot
    • Functional axis across big toe
  91. Functional Axis
  92. Comparison of Diets
  93. Information/Brain
    • Endocasts - Fossl brain impression
    • Size of bran increases
  94. Size of brains
    • Gibbon = 90cc
    • Chimpanzee = 285-500cc
    • Gorilla = 340-750cc
    • Australopithecus = 400-650cc
    • Modern Humans = 1150-2000 (average 1355cc)
    • Neanderthals average = 1650cc

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