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  1. Photoautotroph
    organisms that make food using energy from the sun
  2. Chemoautotroph
    • organisms that make food using chemicals (no access to sun):
    • example--organisms deep in ocean
  3. Heterotroph
    • Organisms that eat other organisms
    • (cannot make their own food)
  4. sustainability
    use of methods, systems and materials that won't deplete resources or harm natural cycles for the future
  5. Primary Consumer

    (notice bug on leaf)
    consumer that feeds directly on producers
  6. Secondary consumer

    a consumer that eats primary consumers
  7. Producer
    organism that makes its own food (autotroph) and produces organic molecules that serve as food for other organisms in an ecosystem
  8. Primary succession

    ^represents a volcanic eruption
    • process by which a community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil:
    • Example-volcanos make islands
  9. Secondary succession
    • Change following a disturbance that damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact:
    • Example-forest growing back
  10. Biosphere
    all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems
  11. Ecosystem
    community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them
  12. Community
    all the organisms living in an area (different species)
  13. Population
    group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
  14. Carrying capacity

    (environment=bin, population=trash)
    number of organisms in a population that an environment can maintain:
  15. Density-dependent limiting factor
    • factor that limits a population more as population density increases:
    • Example--disease
  16. Density-independent limiting factor

    ^reps earthquake = natural disaster
    factor unrelated to population density that limits a population
  17. Energy and Energy flow
    • The movement of energy through a biological food chain:
    • 10% is passed from previous trophic level
    • nearly all energy is from sun
    • all living things use energy
  18. Cycling of matter
    • matter is recycled within and between ecosystems through biogeochemical cycles (water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle):
    • Example: photosynthesis, and fossil fuels in the Carbon cycle
  19. Photosynthesis
    • Energy + 12 H2O + 6 CO2 --> 6 O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2O
    • the process in which plants use energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
  20. Respiration
    • 6 O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2O --> Energy + 12 H2O + 6 CO2
    • opposite of photosynthesis
    • process by which oxygen is converted to chemical energy and carbon dioxide
  21. Life
    the condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms, being characterized by reproduction, adaptation, evolution, DNA and/or RNA, production of waste, and use energy
  22. Prokaryotic

    cellular organism that lacks a nucleus (does not have membranes within membrane); bacteria
  23. Eukaryotic
    a complex cell with a nucleus surrounded by its own membrane and has other internal organelles
  24. Tragedy of the commons
    Shared areas/ resources are ruined/depleted because people use them for their own self-interest even though it is not in anyone's long-term interest

  25. Biodiversity
    (large) number of species in a given area
  26. Competition
    different species need same thing --> one will succeed over the other because growth is limited by same resource
  27. Predation
    interaction in which one organism consumes another
  28. Parasitism

    ^crumbs = flees and ticks
    Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed as a result
  29. Mutualism

    Alexus helps Alex with her bad day and gets
    kindness in return
    a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
  30. Commensalism

    (Alexus gets nothing in return but doesn't mind giving Alex a ride)
    A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other isn't affected
  31. Niche

    ^Mom works at home in kitchen to pay bills
    an organism's habitat (physical features of environment) and role in that environment
  32. Detritus
    waste and remains of dead organisms :(
  33. Eutrophication
    having water rich in nitrogen promotes growth of plans-- especially algae--which reduces oxygen and as a result kills organisms
  34. Greenhouse Effect
    atmospheric gasses trap sun's energy that reaches earth--heats up surface; keeps stable temperature

Card Set Information

2010-10-06 05:38:11

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