Nutrition Ch. 1 & 2

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Nutrition Ch. 1 & 2
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2010-10-03 21:23:35
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  1. Active involvement in behaviors or programs that advance positive well-being?
    Health promotion
  2. The sum of the processes involved with the intake of nutrients as well as assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy?
    Nutrition
  3. A state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being, relative freedom from disease or disability?
    Health
  4. This report outlines specific objectives for 1) helping individuals of all ages increase life expectancy and improve their quality of life and 2) eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population?
    Healthy People 2010
  5. What is a major theme throughout Healthy People 2010?
    Encouragement of healthy choices in diet, weight control, and other risk factors for diease, especially in the report's specific nutrition objectives
  6. This approach identifies risk factors that increase a person's chance of developing a particular health problem?
    Preventive approach
  7. This approach only attempts change when symptoms of illness or disease already exist?
    Traditional approach
  8. What three basic functions do nutrients in food perform within the body?
    • Provide energy
    • Build tissue
    • Regulate metabolic processes
  9. The fundamental principle of nutrient interaction has what two concepts?
    • The individual nutrients have many specific metabolic functions.
    • No nutrient ever works alone.
  10. This is the body's primary and preferred source of fuel for energy?
    Carbohydrates
  11. Human energy is measured in heat units called?
    Kilocalories
  12. This form is more concentrated, yielding 9kcal , and is the body's secondary storage form of energy?
    Dietary fats
  13. This yields 4kcal/g as well, and may be used when the body cannot yield energy from carbohydrates and fats?
    Proteins
  14. What is the recommended intake for carbohydrates?
    45% - 65%
  15. What is the recommended intake for fat?
    20% - 35%
  16. What is the recommended intake for protein?
    10% - 35%
  17. What is the primary function of protein?
    Tissue building
  18. Dietary protein provides what building blocks that are necessary for constructing and repairing body tissues?
    Amino acids
  19. These are derived from fat metabolisms, help build the central fat substance of cell membranes, and promote the transport of fat-soluble nutrients throughout the body?
    Fatty acids
  20. This helps regulate the passage of food material through the gastrointestinal tract and influence absorption of various nutrients?
    Dietary fiber
  21. Optimal nutrition in a person's diet obtained from a varied and balanced diet including?
    Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water in ideal amounts
  22. Refers to a condition caused by improper or insufficient diet?
    Malnutrition
  23. The sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body (cells)?
    Metabolism
  24. A polysaccharide, the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle tissue?
    Glycogen
  25. How much grains should be consumed daily?
    6 oz.
  26. How much vegetables should be consumed daily?
    2.5 cups
  27. How much fruit should be consumed daily?
    2 cups
  28. How much milk should be consumed daily?
    3 cups
  29. How much meat and beans should be consumed?
    5.5 oz
  30. The focus of the DRIs are to promote what?
    Health as opposed to exclusively centering on preventing disease
  31. Chemical elements or compounds in foods that have specific metabolic functions within the body?
    Nutrients
  32. All nutrients needed by the body...
    are supplied by a variety of foods in many different combinations
  33. All persons throughout life, as indicated by the DRIs, need?
    the same nutrients in varying amounts
  34. The process by which plants transform solar energy into carbohydrates, the stored fuel form of plants?
    Photosynthesis
  35. The human body can rapidly break down these stores of quick and sustaining energy foods (sugars & starches), providing major source of energy in the form of calories?
    Carbohydrates
  36. To produce energy from a basic fuel supply, the body does what three functions?
    • Digests its basic fuel, carbohydrates, changing it to glucose.
    • The body absorbs = blood circulation, carries this to cells that need glucose.
    • Glucose is burned in the cells, and energy is released through cell metabolism.
  37. What are the class members of monosaccharides?
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  38. What are the class members of disaccharides?
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • Maltose
  39. What are the class members of Polysaccharides?
    Starch and glycogen
  40. What foods are carbohydrates found in?
    Grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
  41. A carbohydrate is composed of?
    • Carbon (C)
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Oxygen (O)
  42. Chemical name for a single sugar unit?
    Saccharide
  43. Sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar (saccharide) units?
    Simple carbohydrates
  44. Large, complex molecules of carbohydrates compose dof many sugar units (polysaccharides)?
    Complex carbohydrates
  45. Sucrose = ?
    Glucose + Fructose
  46. Lactose = ?
    Glucose + Galactose
  47. Maltose = ?
    Glucose + Glucose
  48. This term is used for food products that are produced from unrefined grain, which is grain that still contains its nutrients (dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins)?
    Whole grain
  49. This term are refined grain products to which key nutrients have been added back?
    Enriched grains
  50. Glycogen is found where?
    In animal muscle tissue
  51. Glycogen is not a significant source of carbohydrate in the diet. Rather it is a carbohydrate formed?
    Within the body's tissues and is crucial to the body's metabolism and energy balance
  52. Glycogen is found in the liver and muscles, where it is?
    Constantly recycled (broken down into glucose)
  53. Small stores of glycogen are stored to help sustain?
    Normal blood glucose during short-term fasting periods (i.e. sleep) and provide immediate fuel for muscle action
  54. This type of fiber is able to bind bile acids and thus lower blood cholesterol levels?
    Soluble fiber
  55. This type of fiber is recommended for the relief from constipation?
    Insoluble fiber
  56. This bulk remains undigested in the GI tract and helps move the food mass along, stimulates normal muscle action in the intestine, and forms feces for elimination of waste products?
    Cellulose
  57. The main sources of cellulose are?
    Stems and leaves of vegetables, and the coverings of seeds and grains
  58. A ligand that binds to a metal to form a metal complex?
    Chelator
  59. Phytic acid is a?
    Chelator of important minerals
  60. Although this is an insoluble fiber, it also combines with bile acids and cholesterol in the human intestine, preventing their absorption?
    Lignin
  61. These absorb water and swell to a larger bulk, thus slowing the emptying of the food mass from the stomach, binding bile acids in the intestine, and preventing spastic colon pressure by providing bulk for normal muscle action?
    Noncellulose Polysaccharides
  62. What food groups provide the necessary dietary fiber?
    Whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
  63. Nutritive sweeteners that include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol?
    Sugar alcohols
  64. A sugar alcohol formed in mammals from glucose and converted to fructose, and is widely used as a sucrose substitute in various foods, chewing gum, and beverages?
    Sorbitol
  65. What is the downside of using excessive amounts of sugar alcohols?
    Slows digestion, resulting in diarrhea
  66. Nonnutritive sweeteners do not supply...
    any kilocalories
  67. What are the two primary energy functions of carbohydrates?
    • Basic fuel supply
    • Reserve fuel supply
  68. Carbohydrates furnish readily available energy needed for...
    physical activities and the work of body cells
  69. Fat is also a fuel, but the body only needs a small amount of dietary fat, mainly to supply...
    essential fatty acids
  70. Glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissue provide?
    A constant exchange with the body's overall energy balance system
  71. Carbohydrates help regulate both?
    Protein and fat metabolism
  72. A rapid breakdown of fat would produce excess materials called?
    Ketones, a product of incomplete fat oxidation in the cells
  73. What is the preferred fuel for the heart muscle?
    Fatty acids
  74. What enzyme is secreted in the mouth during digestion of carbohydrates?
    Salivary amylase
  75. What secretions come from the pancreas to breakdown starch to disaccharides and monosaccharides?
    Pancreatic amylase
  76. Chemical digestion is completed in the?
    Small intestine
  77. Proteins produced in cells that digest or change nutrients in specific chemical reactions without being changed themselves in the process?
    Enzymes
  78. Enzymes from the brush border of the intestinal tract are used for what?
    Making sure that monosaccharides are ready for absorption into the blood circulation
  79. What is the main carbohydrate in the diet?
    Starch
  80. What is a form of sugar circulating in the blood?
    Gluose

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