Active involvement in behaviors or programs that advance positive well-being?
The sum of the processes involved with the intake of nutrients as well as assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy?
A state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being, relative freedom from disease or disability?
This report outlines specific objectives for 1) helping individuals of all ages increase life expectancy and improve their quality of life and 2) eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population?
Healthy People 2010
What is a major theme throughout Healthy People 2010?
Encouragement of healthy choices in diet, weight control, and other risk factors for diease, especially in the report's specific nutrition objectives
This approach identifies risk factors that increase a person's chance of developing a particular health problem?
This approach only attempts change when symptoms of illness or disease already exist?
What three basic functions do nutrients in food perform within the body?
Regulate metabolic processes
The fundamental principle of nutrient interaction has what two concepts?
The individual nutrients have many specific metabolic functions.
No nutrient ever works alone.
This is the body's primary and preferred source of fuel for energy?
Human energy is measured in heat units called?
This form is more concentrated, yielding 9kcal , and is the body's secondary storage form of energy?
This yields 4kcal/g as well, and may be used when the body cannot yield energy from carbohydrates and fats?
What is the recommended intake for carbohydrates?
45% - 65%
What is the recommended intake for fat?
20% - 35%
What is the recommended intake for protein?
10% - 35%
What is the primary function of protein?
Dietary protein provides what building blocks that are necessary for constructing and repairing body tissues?
These are derived from fat metabolisms, help build the central fat substance of cell membranes, and promote the transport of fat-soluble nutrients throughout the body?
This helps regulate the passage of food material through the gastrointestinal tract and influence absorption of various nutrients?
Optimal nutrition in a person's diet obtained from a varied and balanced diet including?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water in ideal amounts
Refers to a condition caused by improper or insufficient diet?
The sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body (cells)?
A polysaccharide, the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle tissue?
How much grains should be consumed daily?
How much vegetables should be consumed daily?
How much fruit should be consumed daily?
How much milk should be consumed daily?
How much meat and beans should be consumed?
The focus of the DRIs are to promote what?
Health as opposed to exclusively centering on preventing disease
Chemical elements or compounds in foods that have specific metabolic functions within the body?
All nutrients needed by the body...
are supplied by a variety of foods in many different combinations
All persons throughout life, as indicated by the DRIs, need?
the same nutrients in varying amounts
The process by which plants transform solar energy into carbohydrates, the stored fuel form of plants?
The human body can rapidly break down these stores of quick and sustaining energy foods (sugars & starches), providing major source of energy in the form of calories?
To produce energy from a basic fuel supply, the body does what three functions?
Digests its basic fuel, carbohydrates, changing it to glucose.
The body absorbs = blood circulation, carries this to cells that need glucose.
Glucose is burned in the cells, and energy is released through cell metabolism.
What are the class members of monosaccharides?
What are the class members of disaccharides?
What are the class members of Polysaccharides?
Starch and glycogen
What foods are carbohydrates found in?
Grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
A carbohydrate is composed of?
Chemical name for a single sugar unit?
Sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar (saccharide) units?
Large, complex molecules of carbohydrates compose dof many sugar units (polysaccharides)?
Sucrose = ?
Glucose + Fructose
Lactose = ?
Glucose + Galactose
Maltose = ?
Glucose + Glucose
This term is used for food products that are produced from unrefined grain, which is grain that still contains its nutrients (dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins)?
This term are refined grain products to which key nutrients have been added back?
Glycogen is found where?
In animal muscle tissue
Glycogen is not a significant source of carbohydrate in the diet. Rather it is a carbohydrate formed?
Within the body's tissues and is crucial to the body's metabolism and energy balance
Glycogen is found in the liver and muscles, where it is?
Constantly recycled (broken down into glucose)
Small stores of glycogen are stored to help sustain?
Normal blood glucose during short-term fasting periods (i.e. sleep) and provide immediate fuel for muscle action
This type of fiber is able to bind bile acids and thus lower blood cholesterol levels?
This type of fiber is recommended for the relief from constipation?
This bulk remains undigested in the GI tract and helps move the food mass along, stimulates normal muscle action in the intestine, and forms feces for elimination of waste products?
The main sources of cellulose are?
Stems and leaves of vegetables, and the coverings of seeds and grains
A ligand that binds to a metal to form a metal complex?
Phytic acid is a?
Chelator of important minerals
Although this is an insoluble fiber, it also combines with bile acids and cholesterol in the human intestine, preventing their absorption?
These absorb water and swell to a larger bulk, thus slowing the emptying of the food mass from the stomach, binding bile acids in the intestine, and preventing spastic colon pressure by providing bulk for normal muscle action?
What food groups provide the necessary dietary fiber?
Whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
Nutritive sweeteners that include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol?
A sugar alcohol formed in mammals from glucose and converted to fructose, and is widely used as a sucrose substitute in various foods, chewing gum, and beverages?
What is the downside of using excessive amounts of sugar alcohols?
Slows digestion, resulting in diarrhea
Nonnutritive sweeteners do not supply...
What are the two primary energy functions of carbohydrates?
Basic fuel supply
Reserve fuel supply
Carbohydrates furnish readily available energy needed for...
physical activities and the work of body cells
Fat is also a fuel, but the body only needs a small amount of dietary fat, mainly to supply...
essential fatty acids
Glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissue provide?
A constant exchange with the body's overall energy balance system
Carbohydrates help regulate both?
Protein and fat metabolism
A rapid breakdown of fat would produce excess materials called?
Ketones, a product of incomplete fat oxidation in the cells
What is the preferred fuel for the heart muscle?
What enzyme is secreted in the mouth during digestion of carbohydrates?
What secretions come from the pancreas to breakdown starch to disaccharides and monosaccharides?
Chemical digestion is completed in the?
Proteins produced in cells that digest or change nutrients in specific chemical reactions without being changed themselves in the process?
Enzymes from the brush border of the intestinal tract are used for what?
Making sure that monosaccharides are ready for absorption into the blood circulation