AP US History, Unit 2
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What were the years of the Revolutionary war?
During the Rev war, where did the Britts like to stay?
THe moved along the coasts, but didn't move inland.
Why did they British leave Boston in 1776?
Americans had the Advantage of having cannons on surrounding hills. British couldn't beat them, at Bunker Hill. Agressive Patriot presense in Boston.
Where, and why did the British move there Head Quarters after Bunker Hill, and leaving Boston?
New York City. It was a Great port city, and had the Hudson river access. Easy to defend and had alot of loyalits support. They stayed there, for the rest of the war.
What happened when Washington attacked New York?
- Washington lost badly, almost losing the entire war. Major Blood dorn battle.
- *They even wrapped towles around their ors to keep quiet.
- Washinton changed stragity to survival, and avoid capture of your Army here.
Some Ideas of George Washinton
- *Learned from his mistakes
- *Went for the small victorys.
- *Attack unexpectidly, then pulled out fast.
What did the "Survival of protecting your Army" Stragitiy do to the war in the North?
- It turned the war in the North into a stalemate. Made it difficult for either side of the to win and made it costly for support.
- U.S. Had advantage for fighting on home turff.
Battle Of Trenton
- Washington crosses the Delaware on Christmas.
- *British commanding officer (A hession) was killed at this Battle.
- *Not one U.S. Soilder was killed durring this Battle.
Battle of Saratoga
- Upstate New York in October 1777
- Major loss for British, 5,700 were captured.
- Benedikt Arnold won this victory for the US
- The British try to cut of New England off of the other colonies (Sandwhich)
- This Victory secures the Support of FranceJohn Burgoyunie-British Army Officer, general here.
In the 1770's the British moved the focus of the war to the Southern Colonies. Why?
- More Loyalists
- Possible slave support
- More river access
What was the worst defet of the war for the Americans?
- The Capture of Port Charleston in 1780
- 5,400 Americans were captured.
- *Worst surrender in American History for 160 years until the Battle of the Phillipians.
Despite huge win, sucess for British in south was Limited...Why? And why was it a stalemate war again.
- British always stayed on the coast and refused to go inland
- No Naval support
- Lots of Hostile locals and settlers using Guerilla war tacticks.
- Nathanial Greene was southern leader for the US
Seege of York Town, 1781 October.
- Parliment pressures Brits to move to Yorktown peninsula in Virgina coast and Showdown with Washington. -They hope to lure Washington out.
- Treat with French comes into play-French fleet shows up to control Chesapeake Bay-Cuts of British Escape at Yorktown.
- Large French army joins Washington's =]
- British Surrender. Most shocking defeat, Ever.
- Lord Cornwallis sends rep. to Washington to surrender, an Inferrior. Washinton Reffuses rep.
Treaty of Paris, 1981
- US Reps at conference- Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
- French try to keep up the conflict between the US and Britts, to keep us weak. US growns backbone and Bypasses them.
- *1) Independance from Brittian
- *2) Boundry, East of the Mississippi
- *3) ALL British troops go home.
- *4) All Pre-war debts REMAIN as Debts.
Why did the Americans win the war?
- Our Millitary Forces-Continental army grew in size&Skill during war. Local militas added numbers, but were unreliable.
- Washington-His survial tactics frustrated the British. they fail to adapt to it, and they don't change thier stragity.
- Fighing Overseas- This strianed the British. Like the 7 years war.
- Parliment-They tired of the war and focused thier energy on India and China, more profitable areas.
Rev. Impact on Loyalistis
- Located mostly along the coast, especially in NYC
- Actualy % hard to determine.
- 10,000's flee the states after the war-back to Great Brittian or Canada. Pride is hurt aswell, and not popular with the patriot locals.
Why stay loyal to England?
- Don't want to be a loser.
- Some people had finiancial ties to England.
Rev. Impact on African-American's
- At first, many slaves feel revolution will mean thier freedom aswell.
- Said the Declairation of Independance didn't make sense.
- Southern Support was critical--Congress can't consider abolition.
- British offer them abolition to slaves who help them. 20% help.
- Britian lost, meaning offer is void, resulting in some slaves fleeing to the West or Canada.
Rev. Impact on Native American's
- Most powerful NA's are in the interior, west of the Proc line. (Pittsburg)
- Pretty Much gone
- They feel British will win, and Ally with them.
- NA attacks devistate interrior PA & NY
- British stay along the coasts, cannot ally with NA much.
- By siding with Britts, NA's are HATED by Colonists.
Rev. Impact on The Role of women.
- 1000s followed army as "Camp Followers": Did cooking, laundry, nurses, ect.
- Many are active in the protests leading up to the conflict, and some serve as spies during war.
- *By playing active roles in Revolution, pushes some women into womens rights.
What was wrong with the Articles of Confedeation?
They were idealistic but poorly designed.
Articles on power
Federal- Foregin affairs, Declair war, run post office, Incharge of indian affairs, and can make treatys.
State- Tax, issue money, All powers that should be assigned to federal goverment.
One Key flaw in the artickles
- Require a unamous (ALL) vote for a an OK by all states. Nothing got accomplished. Passing Legislation was tough.
- -Weak nature of the artikle made fighiting the Rev. war difficult.
Articles, congress on military.
Congress could only ask for money from states to fund the war, they didn't have the power to tax.
Congress grants "Extraordinary Powers"
To George Washington to wage the war, congress concedes it cannot run this wat in a democratic manner.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provides for survery/ sale of the land north of the Ohio River.
Northwest Ordinacnce of 1787
- Provides Political organiszation pointing towards evental state hood.
- Slavery okau south of the Ohio River but not the north.
Land sales will raise funds to help pay into the national debts
Shay's Rebellion Mass, 1785-1786
- States goverments increase taxes. People get loans from each other, paper money debt forms. most of it organizing in English banks.
- 1786 Violence breaks out to attack tax collection revoltion war . Dan Shay's leads open Revolution on in Mass. against state goverment.
- The rebellion is over by Spring 1787, leaders are pardoned by Legislature.
- If they had hung him, he would have been a maryter--So they don't.
In 1786 British banks call back thier loans
- econime choas unleashes throughtout New England. Many poor face finicancal ruin.
- Many towns pass "Stay Laws" suspending payment of private debts. Towns refuse to pay taxes.
Rise of Federalists
- They feel the nation must have a stronger federal goverment, and state goverment must be curtailed.(restriceted)
- They fear that the radical nature of the Rev.(Sons of Liberty) is actually putting the new nation in danger.
- Federalists also believe in theory of Aristocarcy-is a form of government in which a few of the most prominent citizens rule. of talent- Leaders should be skill, education, social stature.
- Federalists include inflluential revolution figures like George, Hamilton, and Mandison, and Jay
Phildelphia May 1787
- Grand Convention
- Nerve center for the Nation--Ground Zero.
- Moves to NY for errie cannal access.
- Feel the goverment only needs to be revised.
- Oppose those who wish to restucture the goverment entirely(the Federalists)
The Virgina Plan
- Proposed my Madison. (Jefferson, who was in France as a Rep. also imputs)
- Loved by the South & Big States
- BI-Camceral Legislater- assembly chosen by population-Based on pop. Senate chosen by the Assembly.
- Pres, selected by Leg. and National Judicary Branch.
New Jersey Plan
- Presented by William Patterson.
- Keeps articles
- adds power to tax
- Have a President, and a court.
- Liked by Small states.
The Great (Connecticut) Compromise
- Proposed to resolve diffrences in both approches.
- House of Reps based on white population of each state (Plus 3/5 of slave pop.)
- Senate = # to all states, selected by State Leg.
- Electoral College meets to select a President.
- -Relects the Aristocary of talent. Built fear of citizens not being capable of chose a president.
Slavery at the Convention
- Provides much conflict
- Attempt to abolish slavery is quick turned down.
- Southern states will not tolerate Abolition.
- 3/5th compromise
- The importation of slaves will be stoped (Not for 20 more years)
- Fugitive slave law is also writtin.
- These actions in constituion will see slavery acknowledged in the constitution as legal and existing.
The 3/5ths Compromise.
- Passed at convention
- Blacks will count as Reps. and Taxatin.
Elastic Clause AKA the Necessary and proper clause
- Not defined powers in the consititon go to the Federal goverment not the State goverment.
- Key Victory for the Federlists.
- Many worrie it puts to much power in the hands of the Federal Goverment.
Requires 9 out of 13 states needed.
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