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•Description of, history of, and relationship between human languages
- •how a language is formed, how it works, the history and development of language, and its relationship to other aspects of culture
- •Language structure and how words reflect perception of the world
The study of humankind in all times and all places using holistic approach.
Biological/ Physical anthropology
•The study of humans as organisms
- –evolution, studies humans as biological beings both in the present and the past, including biological adaptation to environment and genetic variation
- •Primatology – the study of living or fossil primates (Jane Goodall, Diane Fossey)
- •Forensic Anthropology – identification of human remains for legal purposes
•The systematic study of the remains of previous cultures as a means of reconstructing the life ways of people who lived in the past
- •Spans ca. 6 million years to present
- •Examines artifacts, ecofacts, settlements, settlement patterns, lithics, features
- •Prehistoric archaeology
- •Historic archaeology
- •Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
- •Emphasis on material culture
•Studies people in the present as culture producers
- •Aims to understand diversity of human behavior, thoughts, and feelings (i.e., cultural variation)
- •Researches cultural differences
- •Overlap with other fields
- •“Culture” is the central concept and is what sets us apart from other species
•A theory about culture
- •Institutions and beliefs are integrated in a particular pattern
- •Culture cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone
- •Culture is dynamic
•Collect primary data in natural field settings
- •Make connection with culture outside of the laboratory
- –Investigate, analyze, open up to understanding
- –Each sub-discipline has specific fieldwork techniques
Look for connections between single aspects of culture…
- –Methodological approach of comparing data
- –Not ranking cultures as better than or worse than but describing differences
any culture must be viewed within the context of that culture
making value judgments of a culture by comparing it your own culture
-The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.
-Reaches into all sub-disciplines of Anthropology
–A conventional term used to refer to the period of time before the appearance of written records.
–Does not deny the existence of history, merely of written history.
After writen records
study fossil remains to understand the processes at work in human biological evolution
are objects fashioned or altered by humans, such as a flint chip, a pottery vessel, or a house.
•are natural items that were used in some cultural way by a humans.
- –Shell middens
- –Refuse pits
•are non-portable artifacts
•Context has to do with place and association among archaeological items and the situation in which they occur.
- –At a basic level, context concerns relationships among artifacts.
- –In a broader sense, context is the physical setting, location, and association of artifacts and features.
- –Context is essential for learning about age, use, and meaning.
•One of the primary processes affecting the formation of an archaeological site is preservation.
- –Once objects and features are present in the ground the forces of nature initiate a process of decay and decomposition.
- –Archaeologists normally find only a tiny proportion of the total material culture that was present in the past.
- –One of the most important conditions for preservation is moisture.
- –Inorganic materials typically survive much longer than organic material.
•More than 150 specialists have been examining all aspects of Ötzi the Iceman.
- –Most of the internal organs, as well as the eyeballs, are intact.
- –Found remains of his last meal.
- –Analysis of pollen in the stomach contents indicates he died between March and June.
- –The Iceman was approximately 50 years old at the time of his death.
- Found between Italy and Austria, preserved for 6000
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