Psychology Test Chapter 3

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Psychology Test Chapter 3
2010-10-03 17:29:43
chapter psych

psych chapter 3
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  1. the point in each retina where there are no rods or cones because the cable of ganglion cells is extending through the retina wall
    blind spot
  2. the fluid-filled, snail-shaped, bony chamber in the inner ear that contains the basilar membrane and its hair cells
  3. the inability to distinguish certain colors from one another
  4. the light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that enable humans to see color and fine detail in adequate light but do not function in very dim light
  5. a small area at the center of the retina that provides the clearest and sharpest vision because it has the largest concentration of cones
  6. the number of cycles completed by a sound wave in one second, determining the pitch of the sound; measured in the unit called hertz
  7. the theory of hearing that holds that hair cell receptors vibrate the same number of times per second as the sounds that reach them
    frequency theory
  8. the innermost portion of the ear, containing the cochlea, the vestibular sacs, and the semicicular canals
    inner ear
  9. the transparent disc-shaped structure behind the iris and the pupil that changes shape as it focuses on objects at varying distances
  10. the portion of the ear containing the ossicles, which connect the eardrum to the oval window and ampify sound waves
    middle ear
  11. the sense of smell
  12. two matchstick-sized structures above the nasal cavities, where smell sensations first register in the brain
    olfactory bulbs
  13. the nerve that carries visual information from each retina to both sides of the brain
    optic nerve
  14. the theory of hearing that holds that each individual pitch a person hears is determined by the particular location along the basliar membrane of the cochlea that vibrates the most
    place theory
  15. the layer of tissue that is located on the inner surface of the eyeball and contains the sensory receptors for vision
  16. the light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that looks like slender cylinders and allow the eye to respond to as few as five photons of light
  17. the minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
    absolute threshold
  18. in vision, the flattening and bulging action of the lense as it focuses images of objects on the retina. in learning, the mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, and information
  19. the measure of the loudness of a sound, expressed in the unit called the decibel
  20. depth cues that depend on both eyes working together
    binocular depth cues
  21. information processing in which individual components of a stimulus are combined in the brain and prior knowledge is used to make inferences about these patterns
    bottom-up processing
  22. a unit of measurement for the loudness of sounds
    decibels (dB)
  23. the ability to perceive the visual world in three dimensions and to judge distances accuartely
    depth perception
  24. a measurement of the smallest increase or decrease in a physical stimulus that is required to produce a difference in sensation that is noticeable 50% of the time
    difference threshold
  25. chemicals produced naturally by the brain that reduce pain and the stress of vigorous exercise and positively affect mood
  26. the sense of taste
  27. a flase perception or misperception of an actual stimulus in the environment
  28. the phenomenon in which we shift our focus from one object to another and, in the process, fail to notice changes in objects to which we are not directly paying attention
    inattentional blindness
  29. the smallest change in sensation that a person is able to detect 50% of the time
    just noticeable difference (jnd)
  30. depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone
    monocular depth cues
  31. the visible part of the ear, consisting of the pinna and the auditory canal
    outer ear
  32. the process by which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain
  33. an expectation of what will be perceived, which can affect what actually is perceived
    perceptual set
  34. chemicals excreted by humans and other animals that can have a powerful effect on the behavior of other membranes of the same species
  35. three fluid-filled tubular canals in the inner ear that sense the rotation of the head
    semicircular canals
  36. the process through which the senses pick up visual, auditory and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain
  37. highly specialized cells in the sense organs that detect and respond to one type of sensory stimuli-light, sound or odor for example and transduce (convert) the stimuli into neural impulses
    sensory receptors
  38. pertaining to the sense of touch
  39. information processing in which previous experience and conceptual knowledge are applied in order to recognize the nature of a "whole" and then logically deduce the individual components of that whole
    top-down processing
  40. the process through which sensory receptors convert the sensory stimulation into neural impulses
  41. the narrow band of electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye
    visible spectrum
  42. the law stating that the just noticeable difference (jnd) for all the senses depends on a proportion or percentage of change in a stimulus rather than on a fixed amount of change
    weber's law