Psy 101

Card Set Information

Psy 101
2010-10-03 17:46:27
Neuroscience Behavior

Chapter 2
Show Answers:

  1. a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
    biological psychology
  2. a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
  3. the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  4. the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles and glands
  5. a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
    action potential
  6. a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enalbes vastly grater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
    myelin sheath
  7. the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
  8. the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
  9. chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the recieving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  10. "morphine within" - natural, opiate neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
  11. the body's speedy,electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
    nervous system
  12. the brain and spinal cord.
    (CNS) central nervous system
  13. the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
    peripheral nervous system
  14. neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous systems, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
  15. neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
    sensory neurons
  16. central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs an motor outputs
  17. neurons that carry outgoing information fromt he central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
    motor neurons
  18. the division of peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeltal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
    somatic nervous system
  19. the part of the peripheral nervous sysem that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its symphathetic division arouser; its parasympathetic division calms.
    autonomic nervous system
  20. the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
    sympathetic nervous system
  21. the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conseving its enrygy.
    parasympathetic nervous system
  22. a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
  23. the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells s it enters the skull; the brainstem iis responsible for automatic survival functions.
  24. the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
  25. a neve network in the brainstem that plays an important rle in controlling arousal.
    reticular formation
  26. the brain's sensory switchboard, locted on top of the brainstem; it directs messges to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
  27. the "little brain" attached tothe rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
  28. tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
  29. an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
    (EEG) electroencephalogram
  30. a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
    PET (positron emission tomography) scan
  31. a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
    (MRI) magnetic resonance imaging)
  32. a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Included the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
    limbic system
  33. two almondshaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
  34. a neural sturcture lying below )hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
  35. the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
    cerebral cortex
  36. the portion of th cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
    frontal lobes
  37. parietal lobes
    the portion of the cerbral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex.
  38. the portion of the cerbral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex.
    parietal lobes
  39. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which recive visual information from the opposite visual field.
    occipital lobes
  40. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory aras, each of which recievs auditory information primarily fromt he opposite ear.
    temporal lobes
  41. an area at the rear of the frontal loves that controls voluntary movements.
    motor cortex
  42. the area at the fron of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations.
    sensory cortex
  43. areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
    association areas
  44. impariment of language , usually caused by left hemishpere damage either to Broca's area (impariing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (imparing understanding).
  45. controls language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in te left hemisphere, that directs the muschle movements involved in speech.
    Broca's Area
  46. controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
    Wernicke's area
  47. the brain's capacity for modification, as evident i brain reorganizaion following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain developement.
  48. the large band of neural givers connectiong the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
    corpus callosum
  49. a condition in which the two hemispheres of hte brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
    split brain
  50. the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    endocrine system
  51. chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
  52. a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
    adenal glands
  53. the endocrines system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
    pituitary gland