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Which muscle is the major extensor of the hip joint?
Middle Gluteal Muscle
What is unique about the hamstring muscles?
Possess vertebral heads that are responsible for filling of the croup
What muscle is responsible for unlocking the knee joint?
Biceps femoris muscle
What is the primary extensor of the stifle joint? Where does it insert?
quadriceps femoris muscle.
it inserts on the tibial tuberosity via 3 patellar ligaments
What supplys the obturator muscles?
What muscle group is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve?
extensors of the digits and flexors of the hock
What muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve?
flexors of the digits and extensors of the hock
What tendons are responible for the prevention of overextension of the joins of the stifle and hock?
- peroneus tertius
- interosseus m
What six muscles make up the common calcaneal tendon?
- biceps femoris
What is the capped hock?
- calcaneal bursae
- made up by:
- the calcaneus and gastroc tendons and
- gastroc and ssf tendon and
- the sdf and skin
What is the most common site of lameness in equines?
What is the trochanteric bursa?
- between crainial part of the greater trochanter and aponeurotic attachment of the accessory gluteal muscle
- becomes inflamed
- condition called trochanteric bursitis
What happens if you lock the stifle?
lock the tarsus
What does the reciprocal apparatus do?
- allows the hock and stifle to work in tandum by linking them
- passive pull of the sdf when the stifle is extended and locked in place by peroneus tertius on the other side (cranial)
What is the main artery of the hindlimb?
What are the branches of the Femoral Artery?
Saphenous artery and Popliteal artery
Where does the saphenous artery travel?
in the femoral triange it begins to travel distally and superficially on the medial and caudal aspect of the limb
Where does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery?
caudal aspect of the stifle joint (between the heads of the gastrocs)
What are the divisions of the popliteal artery and where does this division take place?
At the stifle joint the popliteal artery becomes cranial and caudal tibial arteries
Which branch passes through the interosseus space between the tibia and fibula?
cranial tibial artery
Where is the cranial tibial artery located?
traveling cranialward on the dorsolateral part of the tibiofibular segment
What happens to the cranial tibial artery as it travels to the hock?
dorsal pedal artery
When the dorsal pedal artery travels between the space between the lateral splint bone and the cannon bone what is it called?
dorsal metatarsal artery
What part of the dorsal plantar artery passes through the tarsus (vascular canal) itself to reach the plantar aspect of the limb?
perforating tarsal artery
What does the perforating artery anastomose with ?
the saphenous artery
What is the largest artery of the foot?
dorsal metatarsal artery
What is the second branch of the popliteal artery and where does it travel?
Caudal tibial artery
distally traveling along the ddf to join the saphenous artery at the sigmoid anastomosis
What happens to the saphenous artery after it branches off the femoral artery at the level of the femoral triangle?
descends towards the fetlock and divides into medial and lateral plantar arteries
What makes up the deep plantar arch?
branches of the perforating tarsal artery and medial and lateral plantar arteries (from the saphenous artery)
What arises from the deep plantar arch and travels from the hock towards the fetlock?
medial and lateral plantar metatarsal arteries
the branches from the saphenous and cranial tibial arteries join together how?
plantar artery joins with the digital artery
and plantar metatarsal arteries join the dorsal metatarsal arteries
What are the divisions of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (cranial tibial)? Where does this division occur?
proximal to the fetlock
medial and lateral plantar proper digital arteries
Where do the dorsal branches go? (from cranial tibial)
to the dorsal surcfaces of the proximal and middle phalanges
What and where is the termianl arch?
the anastomosis of the dorsal and digital branches within the third phalanx
What two arteries arise from the deep plantar arch?
lateral and medial plantar metatarsal arteries
What are the most important superficial veins of the hindlimb?
dorsal metatarsal, medial and lateral saphenous vv and femoral v
The dorsal metatarsal artery passes under the free edge of the splint bone to gain palmer location of the cannon and it reininforced by?
small branches of the saphenous
Dorsal metatarsal artery divides into?
medial and lateral digital arteries
What makes up the plantar proper arteries?
the lateral and medial plantar arteries from the caudal tibial artery and the digital arteries from the dorsal metatarsal
Where do the lymph vessels from the hind leg drain into?
popliteal lymphocenter and then efferents to the deep inguinal ln
What are the main nerves of the hindlimb?
femoral, obturator, and sciatic
What are the main nerves of the distal hindlimb?
tibial and common peroneal
Where does the common peroneal divide and to what does it divide into?
superficial peroneal and deep at the distal aspect of the stifle laterally
What does the superficial peroneal nerve innervate?
long and lateral digital extensor tendons and the skin of the lateral part of the leg
What does the deep peroneal nerve innervate?
cranio-lateral group of muscles
What are the branches of the deep peroneal nerve and what do they innervate?
medial and lateral dorsal metatarsal nerves, supply to the skin and joins of the distal limb
What is the trajectory of the tibial nerve?
passes distally between the heads of the gastrocs in the popliteal region and can palpated cranial to the common calcaneal tendon
What does the tibial nerve supply?
Caudal group of mms and at the level of the hock it becomes sensory
What are the divisions of the tibial nerve caudal to the calcaneus?
medial and lateral plantar nerves
What is the lateroventral communicating branch and to which nerve does it apply?
branch between the medial and lateral plantar nerves of the tibial nerve in the metatarsus
What supplies the deep structures of the plantar aspect of the limb?
tibial nerve splits into medial and lateral plantar nerves - the lateral plantar nerve splits into the medial and lateral plantar metatarsal nerves that originate from it in the plantar groove
Medial and lateral plantar nerves (from tibial nerve) where are they found and where do they travel?
course distinctly on either side of the deep digital flexor tendon
where are the medial and lateral plantar digital nerves ( tibial nerve- medial and lat plantar)
sides of the proximal sesamoid bones cranial to the superficial df tendon
Digits of the forefoot
medial and lateral plantar digital nerves send branches to the dorsal surface
Midway metatarsus, name that nerve?
communicating branch of the medial and lateral plantar nerves
caudal to the calcaneus- name that hindlimb nerve
medial and lateral plantar nerve
between the heads of the gastrocs, name that nerve
What is the portion of the hip joint that transverses the acetabular notch?
transverse acetabular ligament
What are the ligaments that hold the femer in place?
- ligament of the head of the femer
- accessory ligament
- transverse acetabular ligament
What ligament of the hip joint is an unique feature of the equine hindlimb?
- Accessory ligament of the femer
- from the prepubic tendon to the fovea capitus to limit inward rotation
- passes through the acetabular notch
What are the allowed movements at the hip joint? and why is this the case?
- extension and flexion in a sagittal plane
- due to antagonism between the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus muscle at the stifle joint
What affords the hip joint protection from lateral blows?
large greater trochanter
What is the classification of the stifle joint?
condylar joint, synovial and compound
What are the synovial sacs of the stifle joint and how do they communicate?
- femoropatellar sac
- lateral femorotibial sac
- medial femorotibial sac
- femoropatellar and medial femotibial sac communicate 100 percent
- femoropatellar and lateral femotibial sac communicate 25 percent
- lateral and medial femotibial sacs no not communicate
What are the unique features of the femoropatellar joint?
trochlear of femur has medial and lateral ridges that are seperated by a medial ridge
Which ridge of the femoropatella joint is larger?
medial femoral ridge, it has a cartilage covered tubercle that is n.b. in the patellar lock
Describe the patella.
largest sesamoid bone in the body, there is a fibrocartilage on the medial angle for the quadriceps femoris m called the parapatellar fibrocartilage
What makes up the articular surface of the patella?
distal resting surface and proximal gliding surface
What exists at the femorotibial joint?
medial and lateral menisci (both semilunar)
What are the 5 ligaments of the stifle joint and their components?
- Patellar ligaments (medial, middle, and lateral)
- Collateral ligaments (medial and lateral)
- Cruciate ligaments (cranial and caudal)
- Meniscal ligaments (4)
- Femoropatellar Ligaments (medial and lateral)
What is the origin of the patellar ligaments?
they are the tendons of insertion of the quadriceps femoris mm so they insert on the tibial
Origin and insertion of the collateral ligaments of the stifle?
epicondyles of the femer to the medial condyle of tibia and the head of the femer
Cruciate ligaments which one can be seen caudally?
caudal tibial cruciate as it runs from the popliteal notch to the cranial part of the intercondyloid fossa of the femer
Where does the cranial cruciate ligament arise and insert?
spine of tibia to the lateral wall of the intercondyloid fossa of the femer
Where do the meniscal ligaments attach?
all 4 attach to the intercondylar area of the tibia
What is the origin and insertion of the femoropatellar ligaments and how are they named?
- medial and lateral
- attach caudally to the femoral epicondyles from the sides of the patella (medially from the parapatellar fibrocartilage)
Describe the patellar lock and how it functions.
quadriceps femoris m moves the patella to glide proximally over the medial ridge of the trochlea, the parapatellar ligament hooks and rests on the medial ridge
medial and middle patellar ligaments and patellar fibrocartilage lock the stifle in place