History of Graphic Design
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Who was Gustav Klimt?
- He was born in 1862 in Austria. He led the revolution against the Viennese Creative Artists Association for the refusal to allow foriegn artists to participate in the exhibition. He became president of the Vienna Secession. His poster for the first exhibition had a naked man from Greek mythology which outraged the Vienna police but only fueled the public's interest in his work.
- His style love of clean, simple sans serif lettering. His work was influenced by symbolism.
- 12-9 First Vienna Secession exhibit poster w/naked man. Clean, simple sans serif lettering, swooping floral forms. p.226
Who is Joseph Hoffman?
- He was an architect and a member of the Vienna Secession. His illustration from the premiere issue of Ver Sacrum, a journal with no two issues the same, shows berries, drawn in a free contour line flowing around a plaque. Hoffman was appointed to the faculty of the Vienna School for Applied Art. His idea of clean, geometric design. He founded an off shoot of the Vienna Secession in 1903, the Vienna Workshops"formed to produce designs as an alternative to poorly designed, mass produced articles to the level of fine arts.
- P. 227: Premiere issue of Ver Sacrum, free contour line of berries flowing around a plaque proclaiming "Association of Visual Artists of Austria. Secession".
Who are the Glasgow Four?
- Group of young Scottish artists who became friends at the Glasgow School of Art in the early 1890's. They were: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, J. Herbert McNair, Frances Macdonald and Margaret Macdonald (sisters). Known for "spook art". McNair married Frances and Rennie married Margaret. The sisters were known for symbolism and mystical ideas and their feminine design with the design depicting Wisdom protecting her children with the leaflike shelter of her hair before a symbolic tree of knowledge. Their interpretation of the human figure, with the purpose to attract notice arouse curiosity. Eventually the four stopped working together and Rennie and Margaret opened a tea house, social club for women to go and socialize. They won the commission in 1896 to design new building for design school in Scotland. It was a massive stone structure.
- Margaret Macdonald, P. 222: Wisdom protecting her children within a leaflike shelter of her hair before a symbolic tree of knowledge.
- 12-3 Symbolic figures of woman and Christ standing over her for the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts. Romantic and Spiritual overtones. ) Margaret and Frances.
- Rennie: 12-4 The Scottish Musical Review Figure with white ring and birds.
Who is Peter Behrens?
- He was a "Tweener" between Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau. Invited to live in artist colony. Built his own house, designed around dining room and music room. Designed furniture and silverware.
- His page design for Jugend, 1904 evoked peacock feathers and Egyptian lotus designs, an abstract column rises between two columns of textura inspired type. "The Kiss" in 1898 is six color woodcut was controversial because of it's androgynous (male and female) imagery. Famous for trademark for Insel-Verlag, the ship in a circle perched on art nouveau waves.
Who is William Morris?
- Pivotal figure in history of design. Grew up in beautiful English countryside, making a profound impression on him. Wealthy, Morris married his model Jane Burden. He had their home, "Red House", built and displeased with the Victorian furniture, designed and supervised the design of his furniture, stained glass and tapestries. The red brick house was sturdier than wood and sticks, reflective of more simpler time. Formed art-decorating firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company. He designed wallpaper, textiles, carpets and tapestries. Art and crafts created beautiful objects from buildings to bedding. He tried to provided hand made beautiful pieces rather than industrialized mass produced manufactured goods.
- Kelmscott Press, known for wellmade books with beautiful typeface design.
- His "Morris Chair" was the father of recliner. His furniture was too expensive, every piece hand crafted by a tradesmen. His wallpaper designs came from his head, not copied.
- Pg. 174: 10-17 The Story of the Glittering Plain, The works of Chaucer.
- Pg. 169: 10-3 Cabinet design with paintings illustrating the honeymoon of Italian king.
- 10-4 Rose fabric design
Who is Kate Greenaway?
- She was a poet and artist during the Victorian era. She created a small world of childhood happiness. Children silhouetted images and soft colors created pages of great charm, the use of white space and asymmetrical balance broke with the Victorian tendency for clutter. The clothes her illustrations wore had a major influence on children's fashion design, known for the big bonnet.
- Pg. 160: 9-56 Under the Window, left out the background and focused on charecters.
- 9-56 Big bonnets, little people lost in their clothes.
Who are The Roycrofters?
- "Kraft of Kings" Elbert Hubbard established his Roycroft Press, printing, and Roycroft Shops (handicrafts) in New York. The Roycroft community became a popular tourist attraction where 400 employees produced artistic home furnishings, copperware, leather goods, and printed material. Successful soap salesman 1895. Couldn't find publisher for his series of biographical sketches "Little Journeys"started Roycroft Press. Used machines to drill holes in furniture.
- Died on the Lusitania.
- Pg. 179: 10-25 Essay on Walt Whitman
Who is Aubrey Beardsley?
- Terrible infant. TB at age 7. Exotic imagery, mythological nyms, erotic pictures. Breasts exposed in pictures. Black and while work. distortions of human figure - powerful black shapes.
- P. 199: 11-15 First cover for The Studio, Illustrated Magazine of Fine Arts. Flowers and trees.
- Pg. 200: 11-20 Oscar Wilde's Salome, John the Baptist and Salome, head on a platter by Herod, positive and negative shapes, exposed breasts.
- 11-18 Rollicking mythological nymphs in a briar border design.11-17 Black and white shapes of two women, contour lines, textured areas.
Who are The Beggarstaff Brothers?
- James Pryde & William Nicholson, brother in laws. 1894. Pseudonyms to protect reputation as artists. Developed collage techniques, cut pieces on board, moved around colored shapes and silhouettes. Famous Don Quixote poster.
- P. 269: 14-1 Poster for Kassama Corn, ignored Art Nouveau, worked with powerful colored shapes and silhouettes.
- P. 271: 14-2 Harper's Magazine, fragments into a symbolic image.
Who is Lucien Bernhard?
- Repainted home while father was away after attending interior design exhibit in Munich. He felt "drunk with color". Painted walls, ceilings and furniture with vibrant colors. Father rebuked him, he ran away never returned. Entered poster contest w poster for "Priester and matches. Reduced communication with one word and 2 matches. Won contest, genius. Simplified graphic communication to language of shape and sign. Pivotal designer with elementary graphics.
- Pg. 271: 14-6 Color became the means of projecting a powerful message with limited information.14-7 Poster for Stiller shoes. Brown background, dark letterforms, black shoe w inside of shoe intense red and front of heel is bright orange.
Who is Alphonse Mucha?
- Young czech artist, working for friend in print shop. Manager needed poster for Sarah Bernhardt, he was the only artist working, had one week to finish. Used Byzantine inspired background. Bottom unfinished due to time. New Years 1895.
- Pg. 206: 11-33 Cigarette girl with spaghetti hair. Filled page with animated form and ornament. 11-34 Princesse, contour lines printed in dark blue gray. Five other lithographic stones printed light blue gray, metallic gold, pink, yellow and brown.
- 11-35 Wiener Chic, fashion magazine typography and illustration.
- Pg. 204 11-32 Commissioned poster for Barnhardt, life size figure, mosaic pattern and elongated shape created an overnight sensation.
Who is Eugene Grasset?
- Hard lines gave stained glass look on posters. Female iconic. Poster for Sarah Bernhardt for Joan of Arc - inspired by ukiyo e prints. His posters different from Cheret. He portrayed women demure, graceful. Printed in Paris and shipped to NY
- Pg. 207: 11-39 Picture of nativity scene for Christmas. Poster advertised new books and major magazines, Harper, Scribner's and Century.
- Pg. 198: 11-12 Histoire, divided spaces into zones, unified lettering, illustration and decorative pattern into a total page design. Beautiful illustration, text and images.
- 11-14 Exhibition poster for Salon des Cent, woman holding book and smelling flowers. Quiet, demure figures.
Who is Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec?
- Son of wealthy count, bones didn't heal after broken hip at age of 12. Only grew 4'2" tall. Painted night life of Paris. Moulin Rouge poster. Bohemian life style.Pg. 202 11-24 Poster of Moulin Rouge with can can dancers with stark white undergarments, yellow ovals for lamps. 11-25 Poster of an kissing woman. Banker Rothchild thought it was his image and tried to ban the distribution of the posters.
- 11-26 Poster for Aristide Bruant, influence of Japanese print evident in flat silhouette, unmodulated color.
- 11-27 Jane Avril, dancer in Paris sketched during performance.
Who is Jules Cheret?
- Father of Women's Lib movement and the Gay 90's. "Father" of the modern poster. Women he portrayed as "free spirit" modern. Cherett's (beautiful women on his posters with low cut dresses, drinking wine, smoking in public, self assured and enjoying life).
- Pg. 195: Censorship restrictions lifted allowing posters anywhere except on churches, polls or designated official notices. Streets became an art gallery with artists creating advertising posters.
- Pg. 196: 11-8 Poster of family of clowns was the turning point in his career
- 11-9 Monochromatic (using only one color) design for theatrical production starring Bernhardt. Poster of lion.
- 11-10 Laureole poster of children in bright red dress holding lamplight.
- 11-11 Masked Ball, carefree grace poster of clown and girl.
Who is Ludwig Hohlwein?
- Graphic illustrater of Munich 1904. Inspired by Baggarstaff. Texture and decorative pattern for clothing manufacturer and retail stores. Red cross poster, posters were effective poropaganda. His posters conveyed Hitlers image of german athletes and culture. Poster for Lufthansa (airline) mythological winged being symbolized the airline and triumph of Nazi party.
- Pg. 277: 14-31 Rich range of texture and decorative pattern to his images.
- His figures were arranged on a fat white or color ground and surrounded by colorful lettering.
- 14-33 Fundraising poster. A graphic symbol for the red cross of a wounded soldier emotional appeal and strong visual impact.
- 14-35 Concert poster of shewarrior with light source striking her from below.
- 14-36 Recruiting poster in 1940 of Nazi soldier, stern and somber appears to be asking a simple question; "And You?"
Examples of Baskerville, Garamond, Bodoni and Century Fonts.
- Baskerville: Q is like a Z, C looks like Omega letter
- Garamond: Modern. Q is just simple leg, W is 2 V's intertwined, looks square
- Bodoni: Straight under Q, like Houdini, W is 2 narrow V's intertwined
- Century: Curly, dramatic, Victorian, V looks like 2 narrow V's next to each other, not intertwined.
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