Test 1 flash cards.txt

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Test 1 flash cards.txt
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Organic Chemistry
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Flashcards covering Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, phenols, thiols, aldehydes & ketones.
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  1. Organic compounds contain what elements?
    Always C, usually H, sometimes O, S, N, P or halogen
  2. Covalent Bonds
    b/twn C and another atom by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
  3. Ionic Bonds
    Transfer of 1 or more electrons form 1 atom to another; electrostatic
  4. Polarity of organic compounds
    Mostly covalent nonpolar
  5. Melting & boiling point of organic compounds
    Both low
  6. Flammability of organic compounds
    High
  7. Solubility in water of organic compounds
    Not soluable
  8. Elements found in inorganic compounds
    Most metals and nonmetals
  9. Polarity of inorganic compounds
    Ionic or polar covalent
  10. Melting & boiling point of inorganic compounds
    High
  11. Flammability of inorganic compounds
    Low
  12. Solubility of inorganic compounds
    Soluble
  13. Hydrocarbon
    Consists of only and H & C. Simplest is methane.
  14. Alkanes
    Hydrocarbons connected via single bond. Usually fuels. Adds �ane ending.
  15. CH4
    Methane
  16. CH3-CH3
    Ethane
  17. CH3-CH2-CH3
    Propane
  18. C4H10
    Butane
  19. C5H12
    Pentane
  20. C6H14
    Hexane
  21. C7H16
    Heptane
  22. C8H18
    Octane
  23. C9H20
    Nonane
  24. C10H22
    Decane
  25. Molecular Formula for Alkanes
    CnH2n+2
  26. Cycloalkanes
    Cyclic alkanes with 2 fewer H atoms.
  27. Molecular Formula for Cycloalkanes
    CnH2n
  28. Substituent
    Branch or sidechain added to a C of an alkane
  29. Isomer
    Two compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms.
  30. Alkyl group
    A carbon branch missing one H atom.
  31. CH3-
    Methyl
  32. CH3-CH2-
    Ethyl
  33. CH3-CH2-CH2-
    Propyl
  34. CH3-CH-CH3
    Isopropyl
  35. Fl-, Cl-, Br-, I-
    Fluro, chloro, bromo, iodo
  36. 3 steps of naming and alkane
    • 1. find longest chain
    • 2. Number atoms starting closest to substituent.
    • 3. Give number and name of subtituent as prefix to alkane.
  37. Haloalkane
    Halogen atom replaces H in an alkane.
  38. Solubility & density of alkanes
    Insoluble, less dense then water.
  39. Melting & boiling points of alkanes
    Lowest of all organic compounds. Increases with more Carbon atoms
  40. Flammability of Alkanes
    Flammable in Air
  41. Alkanes with 1-4 Carbons Atoms are
    Gases at room temp and used as heating fuels
  42. Alkanes with 5-8 Carbons are
    Liquids, very volatile, used for gas
  43. Alkanes with 9-17 Carbons are
    Liquids, have higher BOs, kerosene, diesel, and jest fuels
  44. Alkanes with 18+ Carbons are
    Waxy Solids to coat fruits
  45. BP of branched alkanes
    Lower than straight chain
  46. BP of cycloAlkane
    Higher than straight chains.
  47. Bond Angles and Shapes of Alkanes
    109.5 degrees tetrahedral
  48. Crude Oil
    Separated by different BPs
  49. Combustion of Alkanes
    • Alkane reacts with oxygen & makes carbon dioxide and water and energy.
    • Alkane + O2 = CO2 + H2O
  50. Halogenation of Aklanes
    • Cl, Br, I or Fl replaces an H. Light or heat is required
    • CH3-CH3 + Cl2 = CH3-CH2-Cl + HCl
  51. Uses of Halogentated Alkanes
    Solvents, anesthetics, hair sprays, paints, refridgerants
  52. Functional Groups
    Groups that replace a H that are classifies in families that behave a certain way
  53. Saturated Hydrocarbons
    Alkanes and cycloalkanes
  54. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    Akenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds
  55. Alkene
    Double Bonded Carbon Atoms, -ene ending
  56. Bond Angles of Alkenes
    120 degrees, planar
  57. Bond angles of Alkynes
    180 degrees, planar and linear
  58. Alkynes
    Triple bond between C atoms, -yne ending
  59. Simplest Alkene
    Ethene, C2H4, used in ripening fruits
  60. Rules for naming multiple double & triple bonds
    Must have 2 #s and must use prefix �di, -tri, etc in front of �ene or �yne
  61. Cis & Trans Isomers
    Occur in alkenes when different groups are attached to the double bond. They do not exist is a C atom is attached to identical groups.
  62. Cis Isomers
    Groups are on the SAME side of double bond
  63. Trans Isomers
    Groups are on DIFFERENT sides of double bond
  64. Rules for naming Cis/Trans Isomers
    Prefix �cis or �trans is places in front of location numbers
  65. Pheromone
    A chemical messenger emitted by insects
  66. Addition Reactions in Alkenes & Alkynes do what and occur how
    Reactants add to C atoms in the double/triple bond b/c the bonds are easily broken which makes them very reactive
  67. Catalysts
    Speed up reactions but don�t become part of the product
  68. Hydrogenation
    Breaks double bond & Adds H2. Uses Platinum or Nickle as catalyst
  69. Hydrogenation of Oils
    Created higher melting points and are solids at room temp like margarine or shortening.
  70. Halogenation
    Breaks double bond & adds a Halide (Br, Cl, Fl, I)
  71. When testing for unsaturation, adding bromine to an alkane does what?
    Red color remains
  72. When testing for unsaturation, adding bromine to an alkene or alkyne does what?
    Red color disappears
  73. Hydrohalogenation
    Bonds break & add H and a halogen (+HCl)
  74. Markovnikov�s Rule is used when?
    When and unsymmestrical alkens undergoes hydrohalogenation & Hydration.
  75. Markovnikov�s Rule
    C with mmore H bonded to it gets the additional H. �the rich get richer�
  76. Hydration
    Bond breaks and H2O is added. An acid catalyst is required. H bonds to one C and �OH bonds to the other C.
  77. Aromatic Compounds
    Contain Benzene rings
  78. Benzene Ring
    Has 6 electrons shared equally among C atoms. Has alternating double/single bonds
  79. Toluene or Methylbenzene
  80. Anlline or benzenamine
  81. Phenol or hydroxybenzene
  82. Prefixes for when 2 groups are on a benzene ring
    Ortho, meta, para
  83. Ortho
    (o) 1,2
  84. Meta
    (m) 1,3
  85. Para
    (p) 1,4
  86. Reaction properties of aromatics
    Very stable & resistant to addition reactions. Only undergo substitution
  87. Nitration
    When a nitro group (-HNO2) replaces H on a benzene ring. NO2 as a substituent & + H2O
  88. Sulfonation
    When �SO3H replaces H on a benzene ring. SO3H as a substituent
  89. Halogenation of benzene
    H is replaced by halogen and produces +HCl
  90. Contain hydroxyl group (-OH).
    Alcohols
  91. Gives an �ol ending
    Alcohols
  92. The C atom in an alcohol that has the �OH attached to it.
    Carbonyl Carbon
  93. Classifications of Alcohols
    Classified as the number of CH groups bonded to carbonyl carbon. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
  94. CH3-OH IUPAC name and & common name
    Mehanol & Methyl alcohol
  95. CH3-CH2-OH IUPAC name & common name
    Ethanol & Ethyl Alchol
  96. Contain a �SH group
    Thiols
  97. How to name a Thiol
    Add thiol to the alkane end
  98. Thiol Properties & uses
    Have strong odors, used to detect gas leaks, found in onions & garlic. Used in anesthetics
  99. Contains an �O between two carbon groups
    Ether (has a COC)
  100. Rules for Simple Ether names
    Add alkyl group name in alpha order followed by ether
  101. Contains an O in the carbonring
    Cyclic ether
  102. Heterocyclic Compound
    When not all atoms in ring are C atoms. Ex: Cyclic ethers
  103. IUPAC rules for naming Ethers
    Shorter alkyl group becomes alkoxy groups (CH3-OH = ethoxy)
  104. Simple Rules for naming Ethers
    Name both groups on sides of �O and add ether to end
  105. Boiling Points of Alcohols
    Have higher BPs than alkanes & ethers b/c of H bonds
  106. Boiling Points of Ethers
    Similar to Alkanes b/c no H bonds
  107. Solubility of Alcohols
    With 4 or less C atoms, more soluble in water than alkanes.
  108. Solubilty of Ethers
    More soluble in water than alkanes
  109. Solubility of Phenol
    Soluble in water b/c it is a weak acid
  110. Combustion of Alcohol
    First, get molecular formula, then + O2 to produce CO2 & H20 then balance equation
  111. Dehydration of Alchols
    Loss of �H & -OH from neighboring Carbons to form H20
  112. Saytzeff�s Rule
    When dehydrating alcohols, Take H from C with least H attached to it. �poor get poorer�
  113. An alcohol with heat indicates what?
    Dehydration
  114. Ethers form when ___ takes place
    Dehydration
  115. Oxidation causes ___ of H atoms
    Loss (oil rig)
  116. Reduction causes ___ of H atoms
    Gain (oil rig)
  117. OILRIG
    Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain
  118. When Oxidation of Primary & Secondary Alcohol, where do you remove H atoms
    Remove one H from carbonyl carbon and one H from �OH group to form + H20
  119. Product of Oxidation of primary alcohols
    Aldehyde + H2O
  120. Product of Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
    Ketone + H20
  121. Tertiary alcohols ____ oxidize
    Do NOT b/c no H directly attached to C
  122. Effects of Ethanol
    Depressant, metabolized at a rate of 12-15mg/dL per hour or 30mg by alcoholic
  123. A carbonyl group attached to one H atom
    Aldehyde
  124. Carbonyl Group
    C double bonded to an O
  125. A Carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms
    Ketone
  126. Aldehydes occur where in chains?
    On the end
  127. Ketones occur where in chains
    In the middle
  128. Named by adding �al to end
    Aldehyde
  129. Common name for aldehyde with 1C
    Form- followed by aldehyde
  130. Common name for aldehyde with 2C
    Acet- followed by aldehyde
  131. Common name for aldehyde with 3C
    Propion- followed by aldehyde
  132. Common name for aldehyde with 4C
    Butyr- followed by aldehyde
  133. Methanal or formaldehyde
  134. Ethanal or acetaldehyde
  135. Propanal or propionaldehyde
  136. Butyraldehyde common name
    Butanal
  137. Common uses of aldehydes
    Flavorings & fragrances
  138. IUPAC named with �one ending
    Ketone
  139. Common uses of Ketones
    Acetone, butter flavoring
  140. Polar carbonyl groups are found in what 2 functional groups
    Aldehydes and ketones
  141. Polar carbonyl groups provide ___ interactions
    Dipole-dipole
  142. Polar Carbonyl group consists of what atoms w/ what charges
    C+ and O-
  143. Boiling Points of Aldehydes & Ketones
    Higher than alkanes & ethers, lower than alcohols
  144. As carbon Chains increase what else increases
    Boiling Points
  145. As carbon chains increases what happens to solubility
    Decreases
  146. Carbonyl compounds with 5 or more C are ___ soluble
    Slightly or not very
  147. Solubility of Aldehydes & ketones & why
    Soluable in water, O- atoms form H bonds
  148. Order of increasing boiling points
    Alkanes, ethers, aldehydes & ketones, alcohols
  149. Aldehydes are oxidized to ___ & further to_____
    Carboxylic acids and ketones
  150. [O] stands for
    Oxidation
  151. Tollens Test involves what reagent & result
    Ag+ gives mirror coating
  152. Tollens Test & Benedicts test oxidizes ___ but not ___
    Aldehydes, not ketones
  153. Benedicts Test uses what reagent & result
    Cu2+ and turns from blue to red
  154. Tollens Test & Benedicts test oxidizes ____ to ____
    Aldehydes to carboxcylic acids.
  155. Benedicts Test gives a positive to compounds that have ___ groups next to the aldehyde group.
    -OH groups
  156. Reduction of Aldehydes
    Breaks double bond + H2.
  157. Aldehydes reduce to _____
    Primary Alcohols.
  158. Ketones reduce to _____
    Secondary Alcohols
  159. In addition of Water to Aldehydes or ketones the H bonds to ___ and the OH bonds to ___
    -O of carbonyl group, C of carbonyl group
  160. Acetals are the products of two ____
    Alcohols
  161. Acetals are produced from what two functional groups
    Aldehydes and Ketones
  162. Hemiacetals are produced when 1 ____ add to carbonyl or aldehyde or ketone.
    Alcohol
  163. When the C-O and �OH of a chain bend and form a stable six-atom ring its called a ___
    Cyclic Hemiacetal
  164. When a Carbon atom has 4 different atoms arranged differently in space
    Chiral
  165. The carbon located in the center of 4 atoms or groups of atoms
    Chiral carbon
  166. When a Carbon atom has 4 atoms, with at least 2 the same, arranged differently in space
    Achiral
  167. Chiral compounds have ______ mirror images
    Nonsuperimposable
  168. Examples of a chiral compound
    Anything with handedness (shoes, gloves, etc)
  169. Mirror images are referred to as ____isomers
    Steroisomers
  170. When stereoisomers as nonsuperimposable, each isomer is called an ___.
    Enantiomer
  171. The Fischer projection places which group at the top?
    The most oxidized
  172. A 2-dimensional representation of a molecule is called ____.
    A fischer projection
  173. Vertical line bonds indicates bonds that go ____.
    back
  174. Horizontal Line bonds indicates bonds that go ____.
    Forward
  175. D & L configuration are dependant on the placement of the ___ group.
    -OH
  176. When two Chiral carbons are present, the chiral carbon ____ from oxidized end tells D&L configuration
    Furthest away

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