Test 1 flash cards.txt
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Test 1 flash cards.txt
Flashcards covering Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, phenols, thiols, aldehydes & ketones.
Organic compounds contain what elements?
Always C, usually H, sometimes O, S, N, P or halogen
b/twn C and another atom by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
Transfer of 1 or more electrons form 1 atom to another; electrostatic
Polarity of organic compounds
Mostly covalent nonpolar
Melting & boiling point of organic compounds
Flammability of organic compounds
Solubility in water of organic compounds
Elements found in inorganic compounds
Most metals and nonmetals
Polarity of inorganic compounds
Ionic or polar covalent
Melting & boiling point of inorganic compounds
Flammability of inorganic compounds
Solubility of inorganic compounds
Consists of only and H & C. Simplest is methane.
Hydrocarbons connected via single bond. Usually fuels. Adds �ane ending.
Molecular Formula for Alkanes
Cyclic alkanes with 2 fewer H atoms.
Molecular Formula for Cycloalkanes
Branch or sidechain added to a C of an alkane
Two compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms.
A carbon branch missing one H atom.
Fl-, Cl-, Br-, I-
Fluro, chloro, bromo, iodo
3 steps of naming and alkane
1. find longest chain
2. Number atoms starting closest to substituent.
3. Give number and name of subtituent as prefix to alkane.
Halogen atom replaces H in an alkane.
Solubility & density of alkanes
Insoluble, less dense then water.
Melting & boiling points of alkanes
Lowest of all organic compounds. Increases with more Carbon atoms
Flammability of Alkanes
Flammable in Air
Alkanes with 1-4 Carbons Atoms are
Gases at room temp and used as heating fuels
Alkanes with 5-8 Carbons are
Liquids, very volatile, used for gas
Alkanes with 9-17 Carbons are
Liquids, have higher BOs, kerosene, diesel, and jest fuels
Alkanes with 18+ Carbons are
Waxy Solids to coat fruits
BP of branched alkanes
Lower than straight chain
BP of cycloAlkane
Higher than straight chains.
Bond Angles and Shapes of Alkanes
109.5 degrees tetrahedral
Separated by different BPs
Combustion of Alkanes
Alkane reacts with oxygen & makes carbon dioxide and water and energy.
Alkane + O2 = CO2 + H2O
Halogenation of Aklanes
Cl, Br, I or Fl replaces an H. Light or heat is required
CH3-CH3 + Cl2 = CH3-CH2-Cl + HCl
Uses of Halogentated Alkanes
Solvents, anesthetics, hair sprays, paints, refridgerants
Groups that replace a H that are classifies in families that behave a certain way
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
Akenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds
Double Bonded Carbon Atoms, -ene ending
Bond Angles of Alkenes
120 degrees, planar
Bond angles of Alkynes
180 degrees, planar and linear
Triple bond between C atoms, -yne ending
Ethene, C2H4, used in ripening fruits
Rules for naming multiple double & triple bonds
Must have 2 #s and must use prefix �di, -tri, etc in front of �ene or �yne
Cis & Trans Isomers
Occur in alkenes when different groups are attached to the double bond. They do not exist is a C atom is attached to identical groups.
Groups are on the SAME side of double bond
Groups are on DIFFERENT sides of double bond
Rules for naming Cis/Trans Isomers
Prefix �cis or �trans is places in front of location numbers
A chemical messenger emitted by insects
Addition Reactions in Alkenes & Alkynes do what and occur how
Reactants add to C atoms in the double/triple bond b/c the bonds are easily broken which makes them very reactive
Speed up reactions but don�t become part of the product
Breaks double bond & Adds H2. Uses Platinum or Nickle as catalyst
Hydrogenation of Oils
Created higher melting points and are solids at room temp like margarine or shortening.
Breaks double bond & adds a Halide (Br, Cl, Fl, I)
When testing for unsaturation, adding bromine to an alkane does what?
Red color remains
When testing for unsaturation, adding bromine to an alkene or alkyne does what?
Red color disappears
Bonds break & add H and a halogen (+HCl)
Markovnikov�s Rule is used when?
When and unsymmestrical alkens undergoes hydrohalogenation & Hydration.
C with mmore H bonded to it gets the additional H. �the rich get richer�
Bond breaks and H2O is added. An acid catalyst is required. H bonds to one C and �OH bonds to the other C.
Contain Benzene rings
Has 6 electrons shared equally among C atoms. Has alternating double/single bonds
Toluene or Methylbenzene
Anlline or benzenamine
Phenol or hydroxybenzene
Prefixes for when 2 groups are on a benzene ring
Ortho, meta, para
Reaction properties of aromatics
Very stable & resistant to addition reactions. Only undergo substitution
When a nitro group (-HNO2) replaces H on a benzene ring. NO2 as a substituent & + H2O
When �SO3H replaces H on a benzene ring. SO3H as a substituent
Halogenation of benzene
H is replaced by halogen and produces +HCl
Contain hydroxyl group (-OH).
Gives an �ol ending
The C atom in an alcohol that has the �OH attached to it.
Classifications of Alcohols
Classified as the number of CH groups bonded to carbonyl carbon. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
CH3-OH IUPAC name and & common name
Mehanol & Methyl alcohol
CH3-CH2-OH IUPAC name & common name
Ethanol & Ethyl Alchol
Contain a �SH group
How to name a Thiol
Add thiol to the alkane end
Thiol Properties & uses
Have strong odors, used to detect gas leaks, found in onions & garlic. Used in anesthetics
Contains an �O between two carbon groups
Ether (has a COC)
Rules for Simple Ether names
Add alkyl group name in alpha order followed by ether
Contains an O in the carbonring
When not all atoms in ring are C atoms. Ex: Cyclic ethers
IUPAC rules for naming Ethers
Shorter alkyl group becomes alkoxy groups (CH3-OH = ethoxy)
Simple Rules for naming Ethers
Name both groups on sides of �O and add ether to end
Boiling Points of Alcohols
Have higher BPs than alkanes & ethers b/c of H bonds
Boiling Points of Ethers
Similar to Alkanes b/c no H bonds
Solubility of Alcohols
With 4 or less C atoms, more soluble in water than alkanes.
Solubilty of Ethers
More soluble in water than alkanes
Solubility of Phenol
Soluble in water b/c it is a weak acid
Combustion of Alcohol
First, get molecular formula, then + O2 to produce CO2 & H20 then balance equation
Dehydration of Alchols
Loss of �H & -OH from neighboring Carbons to form H20
When dehydrating alcohols, Take H from C with least H attached to it. �poor get poorer�
An alcohol with heat indicates what?
Ethers form when ___ takes place
Oxidation causes ___ of H atoms
Loss (oil rig)
Reduction causes ___ of H atoms
Gain (oil rig)
Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain
When Oxidation of Primary & Secondary Alcohol, where do you remove H atoms
Remove one H from carbonyl carbon and one H from �OH group to form + H20
Product of Oxidation of primary alcohols
Aldehyde + H2O
Product of Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
Ketone + H20
Tertiary alcohols ____ oxidize
Do NOT b/c no H directly attached to C
Effects of Ethanol
Depressant, metabolized at a rate of 12-15mg/dL per hour or 30mg by alcoholic
A carbonyl group attached to one H atom
C double bonded to an O
A Carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms
Aldehydes occur where in chains?
On the end
Ketones occur where in chains
In the middle
Named by adding �al to end
Common name for aldehyde with 1C
Form- followed by aldehyde
Common name for aldehyde with 2C
Acet- followed by aldehyde
Common name for aldehyde with 3C
Propion- followed by aldehyde
Common name for aldehyde with 4C
Butyr- followed by aldehyde
Methanal or formaldehyde
Ethanal or acetaldehyde
Propanal or propionaldehyde
Butyraldehyde common name
Common uses of aldehydes
Flavorings & fragrances
IUPAC named with �one ending
Common uses of Ketones
Acetone, butter flavoring
Polar carbonyl groups are found in what 2 functional groups
Aldehydes and ketones
Polar carbonyl groups provide ___ interactions
Polar Carbonyl group consists of what atoms w/ what charges
C+ and O-
Boiling Points of Aldehydes & Ketones
Higher than alkanes & ethers, lower than alcohols
As carbon Chains increase what else increases
As carbon chains increases what happens to solubility
Carbonyl compounds with 5 or more C are ___ soluble
Slightly or not very
Solubility of Aldehydes & ketones & why
Soluable in water, O- atoms form H bonds
Order of increasing boiling points
Alkanes, ethers, aldehydes & ketones, alcohols
Aldehydes are oxidized to ___ & further to_____
Carboxylic acids and ketones
[O] stands for
Tollens Test involves what reagent & result
Ag+ gives mirror coating
Tollens Test & Benedicts test oxidizes ___ but not ___
Aldehydes, not ketones
Benedicts Test uses what reagent & result
Cu2+ and turns from blue to red
Tollens Test & Benedicts test oxidizes ____ to ____
Aldehydes to carboxcylic acids.
Benedicts Test gives a positive to compounds that have ___ groups next to the aldehyde group.
Reduction of Aldehydes
Breaks double bond + H2.
Aldehydes reduce to _____
Ketones reduce to _____
In addition of Water to Aldehydes or ketones the H bonds to ___ and the OH bonds to ___
-O of carbonyl group, C of carbonyl group
Acetals are the products of two ____
Acetals are produced from what two functional groups
Aldehydes and Ketones
Hemiacetals are produced when 1 ____ add to carbonyl or aldehyde or ketone.
When the C-O and �OH of a chain bend and form a stable six-atom ring its called a ___
When a Carbon atom has 4 different atoms arranged differently in space
The carbon located in the center of 4 atoms or groups of atoms
When a Carbon atom has 4 atoms, with at least 2 the same, arranged differently in space
Chiral compounds have ______ mirror images
Examples of a chiral compound
Anything with handedness (shoes, gloves, etc)
Mirror images are referred to as ____isomers
When stereoisomers as nonsuperimposable, each isomer is called an ___.
The Fischer projection places which group at the top?
The most oxidized
A 2-dimensional representation of a molecule is called ____.
A fischer projection
Vertical line bonds indicates bonds that go ____.
Horizontal Line bonds indicates bonds that go ____.
D & L configuration are dependant on the placement of the ___ group.
When two Chiral carbons are present, the chiral carbon ____ from oxidized end tells D&L configuration