Nutrition Ch. 3
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Nutrition Ch. 3
A storage form of concentrated fuel for the human energy system?
These supplement carbohydrates, and may be either solid fat or liquid oil in foods?
Chemical group name for organic substances of a fatty nature?
Condition of an elevated level of blood fats?
Chemical group name for fats, composed of glycerol with fatty acids attached?
Most natural fats have three fatty acids attached to their glycerol base, called?
Short-chain fatty acids have how many carbons?
Two to four
Medium and long chains have how many carbons?
Major structural components of fats?
State of being filled, containing all the material it is capable of holding?
Fatty acids are saturated or unsaturated according to?
Whether each carbon is filled with hydrogen
A saturated fatty acid has a structure filled with all the hydrogen bonds it can hold, and as a result...?
It is heavier, denser, and more solid (i.e. meat fats)
A fatty acid that is not completely filled with hydrogen, and is less heavy and less dense (i.e. liquid oil)?
Unsaturated fatty acid
If the component fatty acids have one unfilled spot, the fat is called a?
Olives and olive oil, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocados are examples of?
Monounsaturated fatty acids
If the component fatty acids have two or more unfilled spots, the fat is?
Vegetable oils, fats from plants, and fish sources are examples of?
A nutrient is essential if it contains what two principles?
1) its absence wil lcreat a specific deficiency disease
2) the body cannot manufacture it in sufficient amounts and must receive it from its diet
What two polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered essential to be consumed?
Omega-6 and Omega-3
Omega-6 is found in?
Omega-3 is found in?
Soybean, canola, and flaxseed oil
The body is capable of producing?
Saturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Hydrogenated fats are considered?
Major vehicles for lipid transport in the blood stream, are combination of triglycerides, protein, and fat-related substances?
Fat is insoluble in water, and blood is mainly water, thus fat needs?
A water-soluble carrier (wrapping the fat in a covering of protein)
The higher the protein load...
the higher the lipoprotein's density (HDLs), which carry free cholesterol from body tissues to liver for breakdown and excretion
The higher the fat load...
the lower the lipoprotein's denisty (LDLs) which carry fat and cholesterol to cells
Triglyceride derivatives that has both a "water fearing" and "water loving" molecule?
Molecule containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups?
Produced by the liver, is a key building block for cell membranes?
Lecithin is a combination of?
Glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids
Signaling hormones exerting control over multiple functions in the body, such as the inflammatory response and immunity, and are messengers for the CNS?
A subgroup of steroids and are amphipathic in nature?
A fat-related compound, synthesized only in animal tissues, and is vital to membranes and plays important role in metabolism?
Main food sources of cholesterol?
Egg yolks and organ meats (liver and kidney), as well as other meats (i.e. shellfish = high cholesterol)
High intake of cholesterol can lead to?
Increased risk for coronary heart disease
Excess carbohydrate and protein intake are converted into?
Dietary triglycerides supply the body with?
Essential fatty acids
Fat stored in various fatty areas throughout the body?
This supports and protects vital organs, and regulates body temperature, protects nerve fibers, and helps relay nerve impulses?
This forms the fatty center of cell membranes?
Proteins are embedded in the fatty center of cell membranes, allowing?
Transport of various nutrient material in and out of cells
Predominant supply of saturated fats comes from?
Animal sources (meat fats, dairy fats and products, and egg yolk)
What are a good source of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids?
What supply mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?
Plant foods (mainly vegetable oils)
Obvious (visible) fats include?
Butter, margarine, separate cream, salad oils and dressings, lard, shortening, meat fat, etc.
Less visible fats include?
Cheese, cream portion of homogenized milk, egg yolk, nuts, seeds, olives, avocados, and lean meat
When foods are eaten, some initial fat breakdown may begin in the mouth by the action of?
Little fat digestion occurs in the stomach, except with what one enzyme?
Fat digestion occurs primarily in the?
The fat coming into the duodenum stimulates the secretion of?
Cholecystokinin causes the gallbladder to contract, relax its opening muscle, and secrete bile into the intestine. Bile is what?
A fluid produced and secreted by the liver and transported to the gallbladder for concentration and storage
An agent that breaks down large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles?
What is a powerful fat enzyme secreted by the pancreas?
What are the final products of fat digestion to be absorbed?
Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and glycerol
The small intestine secretes an enzyme in the intestinal juice which acts on lecithin?
Packages of free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts?
Once inside the intestinal cell, monoglycerides and fatty acids reform triglycerides, which are then packaged into a lipoprotein called?
Chylomicron allows for?
absorption of fat into the lymphatic circulatory system before entering the blood circulation
An excess of cholesterol and saturated fat in the diet has been linked to?
Atherosclerosis (blood vessel disease leadinngto to heart attacks and strokes)
Omega-3 fatty acids are required for normal function of?
Brain, CNS, and cell membranes
The fuel form of fat found in food sources are?
Once absorbed into the enterocyte, monoglycerides and fatty acids re-form triglycerides, which are then packaged into a lipoprotein called?
chylomicrons, for absoption into the lymphatic structure