RESPIRATORY

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Author:
SF48203
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39489
Filename:
RESPIRATORY
Updated:
2010-10-03 23:15:46
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PARAMEDIC MICH
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MICHIGAN PARAMEDIC RESP. CURRICULUM
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  1. METASTASIS
    • Change in location of a disease from one organ or part of the body to
    • another. Often used to describe a cancer that has migrated to other
    • parts of the body.
  2. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
    Chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is associated with excess mucous production that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airways.
  3. CRICOTHYROID MEMBRANE
    Membrane between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx.
  4. HERING-BREUER REFLEX
    The nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung overexpansion.
  5. CAPE CYANOSIS
    Deep cyanosis of the face and neck and across the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow; it is particularly ominous.
  6. SNORING
    Noise made on inhalation when the upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongue.
  7. HEMOPTYSIS
    Coughing up blood.
  8. RHONCHUS/RHONCHI
    A coarse, low-pitched breath sound heard in patients who have chronic mucus in the airways (plural: rhonchi).
  9. PNEUMONITIS
    Inflammation of the lung. Implies lung inflammation from an irritant such as a chemical, dust, or radiation, or from aspiration. When lung inflammation is caused by an infectious agent, it would typically be called pneumonia.
  10. CROUP
    Common disease of childhood characterized by spasm of the larynx and resulting upper airway obstruction.
  11. OROPHARYNX
    The area behind the base of the tongue between the soft palate and the upper portion of the epiglottis.
  12. FOWLERS
    A sitting position with the head elevated to 90° (sitting straight upright).
  13. CILIA
    Hairlike microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface.
  14. HYPOVENTILATE
    To not move adequate volumes of gas; underventilate.
  15. DEAD SPACE
    The portion of the tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange.
  16. ARYTENOID CARTILAGES
    One of the paired, pitcher-shaped cartilages at the back of the larynx, at the upper border of the cricoid cartilage.
  17. ANGIOEDEMA
    An allergic reaction that may cause profound swelling of the tongue and lips.
  18. BRONCHOSPASM
    Severe constriction of the bronchial tree.
  19. ALVEOLI
    Sac-like units at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchange takes place (singular: alveolus).
  20. ORTHOPNEA
    Severe dyspnea experienced when recumbent and relieved by sitting or standing up.
  21. RALES
    Old terminology for abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality; now called crackles.
  22. PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA
    Severe shortness of breath occurring at night after several hours of recumbency, during which fluid pools in the lungs.
  23. SPACER
    A device that collects medication as it is released from the canister of a metered-dose inhaler, allowing more to be delivered to the lungs and less to be lost to the environment.
  24. GLOTTIS
    Opening between the vocal cords.
  25. GULLAIN-BARRYNDROME
    A disease of unknown etiology that causes paralysis that progresses from the feet to the head (ascending paralysis). If the paralysis reaches the diaphragm, the patient may require respiratory support.
  26. CARINA
    Point at which the trachea bifurcates into the right and left mainstem bronchi.
  27. PALATINE TONSILS
    One of three sets of lymphatic organs that comprise the tonsils; located in the back of the throat, on each side of the posterior opening of the oral cavity; help protect the body from bacteria introduced into the mouth and nose.
  28. PSEUDOMEMBRANE
    A false membrane formed by a dead tissue layer. Seen in the posterior pharynx of patients with diphtheria.
  29. BOTULISM
    Poisoning from eating food containing botulinum toxin.
  30. TUBERCULOSIS
    A chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the brain or kidneys.
  31. SURFACTANT
    A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs.
  32. PULSUS PARADOXUS
    Weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inhalation, characteristic of cardiac tamponade and severe asthma.
  33. CRACKLES
    Abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality; previously called rales.
  34. SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Nonstriated involuntary muscle found in vessel walls, glands, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  35. CARPOPEDAL SPASM
    Contorted position of the hand in which the fingers flex in a clawlike attitude and the thumb curls toward the palm.
  36. PURULENT
    Full of pus; having the character of pus.
  37. JUGULAR VENOUS DISTENTION
    The visible bulging of the jugular veins when the patient is in semi-Fowler’s or full Fowler’s position. This is indicative of inadequate blood movement through the heart and/or lungs.
  38. DIURESIS
    Secretion of large amounts of urine by the kidney.
  39. HEMOGLOBIN
    Oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells. When hemoglobin has absorbed oxygen in the lungs, it is bright red and is called oxyhemoglobin. After hemoglobin has given up its oxygen in the tissues, it is purple and is called reduced hemoglobin.
  40. ADVENTITIOUS
    A type of breath sound that occurs in addition to the normal breath sounds; examples are crackles and wheezes.
  41. TACTILE FREMITUS
    Vibrations in the chest as the patient breathes.
  42. REACTIVE AIRWAY DISEASE
    A term used to describe any condition that causes hyperreactive bronchioles and bronchospasm.
  43. KUSSMAUL RESPIRATION
    A respiratory pattern characteristic of the person with diabetes who is in ketoacidosis, with marked hyperpnea and tachypnea.
  44. HYPOXIC DRIVE
    A situation in which a person’s stimulus to breathe comes from a fall in Pao2 rather than the normal stimulus, a rise in Paco2.
  45. STATUS ASTHMATICUS
    A severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be broken with epinephrine.
  46. TIDAL VOLUME
    The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during one breath.
  47. POLYPHONIC
    The sound of multiple notes during wheezing, caused by the vibrations of many bronchi.
  48. ATELECTASIS
    Collapse of the alveolar air spaces of the lungs.
  49. CRICOID CARTILAGE
    Ringlike cartilage forming the lower and back part of the larynx.
  50. RETRACTION
    Drawing in the intercostal muscles and the muscles above the clavicles in respiratory distress.
  51. POLYCYTHEMIA
    The production of more red blood cells over time, making the blood thick; a characteristic of people who have chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxia.
  52. ABSCESS
    A collection of pus in a sac, formed by necrotic tissues and an accumulation of white blood cells.
  53. TURBINATES
    A set of bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow.
  54. PLEURAL EFFUSION
    Excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.
  55. COR PULMONALE
    Heart disease that develops secondary to a chronic lung disease, usually affecting primarily the right side of the heart.
  56. EDEMA
    A condition in which excess fluid accumulates in tissues, manifested by swelling.
  57. PIRIFORM FOSSA
    Hollow pockets on the lateral sides of the glottic opening.
  58. SHUNT
    Situation in which a portion of the output of the right side of the heart reaches the left side of the heart without being oxygenated in the lungs; may be caused by atelectasis, pulmonary edema, or a variety of other conditions. In hemodialysis, an anastomosis between a peripheral artery and vein.
  59. EMPHYSEMA
    Infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma.
  60. BETA-2 AGONISTS
    Pharmacologic agents that stimulate the beta-2 receptor sites found in smooth muscle; include common bronchodilators like albuterol and levalbuterol.
  61. LARYNX
    The organ of voice production.
  62. GOBLET CELLS
    Cells that produce a protective mucous lining.
  63. EPITAXIS
    Nosebleed.
  64. STRIDOR
    Harsh, high-pitched sound associated with severe upper airway obstruction, such as that caused by laryngeal edema.
  65. SELLICK MANEUVER
    Pressure applied over the cricoid to seal off the esophagus and prevent reflux of gastric contents.
  66. PARENCHYMA
    The substance of a gland or solid organ.
  67. TRACHEOTOMY
    Surgically opening the trachea to create an airway.
  68. END-TIDAL CARBON DIOXIDE
    The numeric percentage of carbon dioxide contained in the last few milliliters of the patient’s exhaled air.
  69. GREENFIELD FILTER
    A mesh filter placed in the inferior vena cava to catch blood clots in patients who are at high risk of pulmonary embolus.

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