Biology Test pt 2

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Author:
jessica_n28
ID:
39519
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Biology Test pt 2
Updated:
2010-10-11 00:31:28
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Biology
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Description:
Osmosis and Diffusion, Mitosis, Meiosis
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  1. Solutions
    • -Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances
    • - The solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent
    • ex. sugar in water
    • - Solvent molecules are attracted to the solute molecules
  2. Dissolution
    change in the physical state of a substance
  3. Saturation
    • - A solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance (solute) and additional amounts of it will appear
    • unsaturated
    • saturated
    • supersaturated
  4. Temperature
    (Solutions)
    Will increase the solubility of a solute in any given solvent
  5. Osmosis
    Net movement of solvent from the area of higer solvent concentration to the area of lower solvent concentration
  6. Osmotic Pressure
    • - Pressure required to stop osmosis
    • Positive number: water will go from the cell to the extracellular fluid
    • Negative number: water will go from the extracellular fluid to the cell
  7. Colloids
    • - Suspensions of particles larger than individual ions or molecules, but to small to be settled out by gravity
    • - Tyndal Effect: Colloidal suspensions can scatter rays of light
  8. Colloids in Biological Systems
    - Aids in the emulsification of fats (lipids) & oils in aqueous solutions
  9. Chromosome
    • - Composed of chromatin & contains the hereditary units, or genes
    • - Woven up in histone (associated packing proteins) to form nucleosome
    • - Wind & unwind DNA to be able to transcribe
  10. Karyotype
    • - Ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell
    • - Chromosomes arranged by pairs according to their size, shape, & general appearance in mitotic metaphase
  11. Centromere
    Constricted region of a chromosome where sister chromatids are attached to one another and where the chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber
  12. Allele
    • - Genes that can occupy the same gene locus (on different chromosomes)
    • - Alternative form of a gene
  13. Gene
    • - A section of a DNA molecule that contains the code for making one polypeptide
    • - Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromsomes
  14. Homologues
    (Homologous Chromosomes)
    • - Similarly constructed chromosomes that have the same shape & contain genes for the same trait
    • Look the same
    • Control the same traits
    • May code for different forms of each trait
    • Independent origin- each one was inherited from a different parent
  15. Gamete
    - Haploid sex cell; an oocyte or a sperm that join during fertilization to form a zygote
  16. Haploid
    • - Cell possessing a single copy of each chromosome
    • - Half the diploid number; the number of characteristic of gametes that contain only one set of chromosomes
    • Human sex cells
  17. Diploid
    • - Cell processing 2 copies/sets of each chromosomes
    • - Twice the number of chromosomes found in the gametes
    • Human body cells
  18. Interphase
    • - G1: cells undergo majority of growth
    • - S: each chromosome replicates (synthesizes) to produce sister chromatids
    • Attach at centromere
    • Contains attachment site (kinetochore)
    • - G2: chromosomes condense & synthesize proteins needed for cell division
  19. Cell Division
    • - Functions: reproduction, growth & development, tissue renewal
    • - Part of the cell cycle
    • - Interphase
    • G1: growth
    • S: growth & DNA replication
    • G2: growth & final preparations for division
    • - 90% of the cell cycle
  20. Mitosis
    • - Type of cell division in which daughter cells receive the exact chromosomal & genetic make up of the parental cell; occurs during growth & repair
    • - Produces 2 daughter cells with 46 chromosomes each
  21. Prophase
    (mitosis)
    • - Nucleolus has disappeared, and duplicated chromosomes are visible.
    • - Chromosomes begin moving apart & spindle is in the process of forming
  22. Metaphase
    (mitosis)
    • - Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate (center of fully formed spindle)
    • - Centromeric spindle fibers are attached to the sister chromatids come from opposite spindle poles
    • - One of the longest stages
  23. Anaphase
    (mitosis)
    • - Sister chromatids part & become daughter chromosomes that move toward the spindle poles
    • - One of the shortest stages
  24. Telophase
    (mitosis)
    • - Daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes & nucleoli reappear
    • - Chromosomes become less condense
  25. Cytokinesis
    • - Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis & meiosis
    • - Animal cells: constriction belt of actin filaments
    • - Plant cells: cell wall
  26. Mitotic Spindle
    • - Includes the centrosomes, spindle micro-tubules & the asters
    • - Controls chromosome movement during mitosis/meiosis
  27. Independent Assortment
    (meiosis)
    - Alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combination of alleles
  28. Crossing-Over
    (meiosis)
    • - Exchange of corresponding segments of genetic material between non sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapses of meiosis
  29. Heredity
    - Transmission of traits from one generation to the next
  30. Variation
    - Show that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents & siblings
  31. Meiosis
    • - Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations
  32. Prophase I
    (meiosis)
    • - Homologous chromosomes come together & line up side by side
    • - Exchange genetic material (crossing-over)
    • - Form tetrads
  33. Metaphase I
    (meiosis)
    • - Homologue chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
  34. Anaphase I
    • - Pairs of homologous chromosomes separate
    • - Independent assortment occurs
  35. Telophase I
    (meiosis)
    • - Occurs at the end of Meiosis I
    • - Form 2 Haploid daughter cells
    • - Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously
  36. Interkinesis
    (meiosis)
    - Period of time between meiosis I & meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place
  37. Prophase II
    (mieosis)
    • - Simliar to prophase I
    • - Chromosome start moving to metaphase plate
    • - The nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle apparatus forms.
  38. Metaphase II
    (meiosis)
    • - Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
  39. Anaphase II
    (meiosis)
    • - The centromeres separate, and the two chromatids of each chromosome move to opposite poles on the spindle.
    • - The separated chromatids are now called chromosomes in their own right.
  40. Telophase II
    (meiosis)
    • - A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes
    • - Cytokinesis takes place, producing four daughter cells (gametes, in animals), each with a haploid set of chromosomes
    • - Because of crossing-over, some chromosomes are seen to have recombined segments of the original parental chromosomes.
  41. Oogenesis
    • - Production of oocytes in females by the process of meiosis & maturation
    • - Oocyte: Female gamete, or egg prior to fertilization
  42. Spermatogenesis
    • - Production of sperm in males by the process of meiosis & maturation
    • - Spermatid: the functional product of meiosis II; becomes sperm

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