Molnar Anatomy Lecture Exam 2 cards

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Molnar Anatomy Lecture Exam 2 cards
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2010-10-04 01:22:08
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molnar lecture2 joints muscle
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Bones, Joints and Muscle questions for Molnar's Lecture Exam #2
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  1. What are T tubules?
    deep invaginations of the sarcolemma that run between each pair of terminal cisterns
  2. What is the structure and function of sarcoplasmic cisternae?
    • Structure: "end sacs" for perpendicular A-I junctions
    • Function: store large quantities of calcium to be released when the muscle is stimulated to contract
  3. What is the structure and function of neuromuscular junction?
    Structure: cluster of enlargements at the end of the axonal process

    Function: the point at which the nerve ending and the muscle fiber meet which signals the muscle fiber to contract.
  4. What makes the vesicles release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft?
    When a nerve impulse reaches the axon terminal
  5. What happens to the neurotransmitter after it is released into the synaptic cleft?
    It binds to the receptor molecules on the sarcolemma, where it induces an impulse that initiates fiber contraction.
  6. Explain the sliding filament theory
    Troponin changes confirmation and that causes tropomyosin to be dislodged from the sites. Myocin heads interact with actin and pull actin towards the M-line.
  7. What is a joint?
    where the rigid elements of the skeleton meet. (also known as articulations)
  8. How are joints classified?
    By function or structure

    • Function - amount of movement
    • Structure - based on materials that bind bones together
  9. What are the functional classifications of joints?
    • 1) Snyarthroses - unmovable
    • 2) Amphiarthroses - slightly movable
    • 3) Diarthroses - freely movable
  10. What are the structural classifications of joints?
    • 1) Fibrous
    • 2) Cartilagenous
    • 3) Synovial
  11. What are the typical structures of synovial joints?
    • 1) Articular cartilage
    • 2) Joint cavity (synovial cavity)
    • 3) Articular capsule
    • 4) Synovial fluid
    • 5) Reinforcing ligaments
    • 6) Nerves and vessels
  12. What are the accessory structures of synovial joints?
    • 1) Articular disc (meniscus)
    • 2) Bursa
    • 3) Tendon sheath
  13. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    1) Articular cartilage
    covers surface of articulating bones
  14. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    2) Synovial cavity
    filled with synovial fluid
  15. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    3) Articular capsule
    fibrous capsule and synovial membrane
  16. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    4) Synovial fluid
    lubricates free surfaces
  17. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    5) Reinforcing ligaments
    joint reinforcements
  18. Describe the typical structures of synovial joints:
    6) Nerves and vessels
    for feeling and nutrients
  19. What factors influence the stability of a joint?
    • 1) Shape of the articular surfaces
    • 2) Number and position of stabilizing ligaments
    • 3) Muscle tone
  20. List 6 distinguishing features of synovial joints
    • Plane joints - non axial
    • Hinge joints - uni axial
    • Pivot joints - uni axial
    • Condyloid joints - bi axial
    • Saddle joints - bi axial
    • Ball & Socket joints - tri axial
  21. Compare and contrast the structure, function and location of bursae and tendon sheaths
    They are both a flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane. Bursae occur where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons or bones overlie and rub together. Tendon sheaths only occur in tendons.
  22. Describe the 6 features and give an example of synovial joints:
    1) Plane joints
    flat articular surfaces, gliding joints

    vertebra to vertebra; ribs to vertebrae
  23. Describe the 6 features and give an example of synovial joints:
    2) Hinge joints
    cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough surface on another bone

    ulna to humerus; elbow joint
  24. Describe the 6 features and give an example of synovial joints:
    3) Pivot
    rounded end of one bone fits into a ring that is formed by another bone plus an encircling ligament

    C-1 to C-2; radius to ulna
  25. Describe the 6 features and give an example of synovial joints:
    4) Condyloid
    egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into oval concavity of another

    radius, knuckles
  26. Describe the 6 features of synovial joints:
    5) Saddle
    articular surface has concave and convex

    ball of thumb
  27. Describe the 6 features of synovial joints:
    6) Ball and socket
    spherical head in round socket

    shoulder and hip
  28. List the 3 forms of dynamic motion
    • 1) Linear
    • 2) Rotation
    • 3) Angular
  29. What are the possible movements of synovial joints?
    Linear, Angular, Rotation and Special movements
  30. List 4 function of muscle tissue
    • 1) Heat generation
    • 2) Movement
    • 3) Posture
    • 4) Joint stability
  31. List 4 functional characteristics of muscle tissue
    • 1) Contractibility
    • 2) Excitability
    • 3) Extendibility
    • 4) Elasticity
  32. What is sarcolemma?
    plasma membrane
  33. What is sarcoplasma?
    cytoplasm
  34. What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber
  35. What is a muscle fiber?
    cells of skeletal tissue
  36. Define and describe what it is composed of:

    Endomysium
    surrounds entire skeletal tissue

    composed of DICTP
  37. Define and describe what it is composed of:

    Perimysium
    defines fascicles

    composed of fibrous CT
  38. Define and describe what it is composed of:

    Epimysium
    what surrounds each muscle fiber

    reticular fibers
  39. What is a tendon and what specific type of tissue makes a tendon?
    Tendon is a cord of DRCT that attaches muscle to bone.
  40. Distinguish between origin and insertions
    • origin - where muscle starts
    • insertion - where muscle ends

    Origin is on the less movable bone and insertion is on the more movable bone
  41. What is sarcomere?
    The smallest contractible unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle; the part of a myofibril between 2 Z-discs. Basic unit of contraction in skeletal muscle.
  42. Define:

    Filaments
    proteins found within myofibril
  43. Define:

    Actin & myosin
    • myofilaments;
    • actin=thin, myosin=thick
  44. Define:

    Titin
    spring-like elastic filaments attached to myosin
  45. Define:

    Z-disc
    the boundaries at the end of each sarcomere
  46. Define:

    A-band
    dark bands; full length of thick filament
  47. Define:

    I-band
    region on either side of the A-bands that contain only filaments
  48. Define:

    H-band
    central part of A-band with only myocin
  49. Define:

    M-Line
    the center of the H-zone

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