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Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
- It is an experimental design, unlike
- other scientific designs, which analyzes behavior in organisms in the
- natural environments. That is, Applied being in
- everyday settings and environments, Behaviors that
- which is affecting the individual in a positive or negative way and
- Analysis because we evaluate the behavior in terms of
- their comparison to its setting and environment.
- A type of learning where a neutral
- (unconditioned stimuli because this neutral stimulus alone would not
- elicit the required response) stimulus is paired with an
- unconditioned stimulus that elicits a reflex response. Repeated
- pairing brings about learning where then the neutral stimulus bring
- about the response. (i.e., Pavlov’s Dog).
- Behaviors that are controlled by
- influences within the environment (Consequences or Antecedents). These behaviors are emitted (occur or happen as part of everyday life) rather then elicited (teaching it as you would
- in classical conditioning).
- Type of learning in which behavior is
- influenced primarily by the consequences that follow them. Everyday
- life behaviors that are influenced by environmental factors. They are not reflex responses (respondents) controlled by eliciting
- stimuli. Operant behaviors include reading, walking, working,
- talking nodding one’s head, smiling and other freely emitted
- The pioneer of Classical Conditioning,
- he trained a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell.
- He was interested with the learning of
- new behaviors, rather then with establishing new connections of
- reflex behavior. Formulated the laws of principles of behavior. Law
- of Effect, which stated that consequences that follow behavior help
- Influenced by the previous two, he
- explored the impact of various consequences on behavior. He helped
- to distinguish the difference between consequences and classical
- conditioning studied by Pavlov. He suggested that many behaviors are
- emitted spontaneously and are controlled primarily by their
- consequences. These behaviors are what he referred to as operants,
- because they are responses that operated (had some influence) on the
- environment . Operants are not reflexes but are things that we do in
- every day life, walk, talk, smile, that are controlled by some
- influence in the environment. The process of learning operant
- behaviors is referred to as operant conditioning. These
- principles provide general statements about the relation between
- behaviors and environmental events.
- Incorporated behaviorism as form of
- psychology and discussed it as a learning theory. His famous
- statement: Give me a dozen infants, well-formed, and my own
- specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any
- one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might
- select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant chief and, yes, even
- beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants,
- tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. He
- also demonstrated learning by conditioning a fear reaction in an
- 11-month-old boy named Albert.
- He investigated anxiety and avoidance
- reactions. He investigated something referred to as experimental
- neurosis. He developed systematic desensitization, which
- as we will learn late is a form of SHAPING.
Characteristics of Applied Behavior
Focus on Overt Behaviors
- Focus on Behaviors of Applied
- Assess Behavior Though Direct
Assess Behavior Continuously Over Time to Identify Patterns that would help Explain what is Maintaining the Behavior (Antecedents, Consequences)
Search for Marked Intervention Effects that make a Clear Difference to the Everyday Functions of the Individual
Focus on One or a Small Number of Individuals Over Time
Use Environmental (and Observational) Events to Influence the Frequency of Behavior
- Identify, Evaluate, and
- Demonstrate the Factors that are Responsible for Behavior Change
Refers to the impact of the intervention on the person in everyday life. The importance of the effect and the practical value the intervention has on the person.
- A terms that helps practitioners
- determine the importance of a behavior change in a person in relation to the significance it holds on the social group in which the individual is associated with. Also, helps in determining the criterion for successfully completing a goal in ABA.
Cautions and Concerns
- Although the LRA guidelines seem
- reasonable, there is a caution against the assumption that more restrictive is “better” or even needed at all.
The continuum of the restrictiveness of procedures is not entirely clear.
The LRA doctrine is not particularly helpful in selecting treatment options.
Guidelines for LRA
Treatment ought to begin with a less restrictive (less aversive, drastic) procedure.
More drastic procedures should be sought if evidence shows that the less restrictive procedure was ineffective.
Least Restrictive Alternative
- A guideline that says, interventions to be used must be selected from a hierarchy of alternative from the least intrusive to the most intrusive. A list of interventions are selected prior to the implementation and the move to a more intrusive alternative is based on its effectiveness on changing the behavior as well as other factors, mostly related to ethics. The least restrictive alternative might refer to the least drastic or least
- aversive procedure. If a less aversive or drastic procedure can be effective, there is no justification for a more drastic procedure.
- Refers to stimuli, settings and
- contexts that occur before the behavior that has some influence inthe behavior.
- Refers to the behaviors themselves that
- individuals do or do not do.
- Refers to events that follow the
- behavior that may influence the increase, decrease or have no impacton what the individual does.
- are contextual factors or conditions
- that influence behavior. Setting events are features of the situation, features of the task or demands placed on the individual, prior experience the person has on what is beingasked of him/her, the behaviors of others, and conditions within the individual (exhaustion, hunger, expectations of what will happen).
Things that directly facilitate the performance of behavior. Prompts themselves are designed to facilitate a behavior, and we often used them to teach and to initiate newly established behaviors in people. Prompts that serve as antecedents may be such things as instructions or gestures.
refers to reinforcing a response in the presence of one stimulus or situation and not reinforcing the same response in the presence of another stimulus or situation. THIS IS HOW LEARNING OCCURS!
Is the reinforcement of successive approximations leading to the final response, or target behavior
A sequence of responses is referred to as a chain. A chain represents a combination or series of the individual responses performed in a particular order. Developing the sequence of behaviors is a process referred to as chaining.
consists of developing behaviors in theorder in which they are to be preformed, from front to back (1ststep – to last).
consists of starting with the last behavior (step) in the sequence first and teaching the sequence in a back to front fashion.
Why Backward Chaining?
This provides a more immediate reinforcement. An event immediately preceding reinforcement becomes a signal for reinforcement.
- The person can see and understand the finished product. The pairing of an S(d) with the reinforcer (seeing the product) eventually results in the S(d)
- becoming a reinforcer, as well as a discriminative stimulus.
Often time’s behaviors are maintained by some contingency that follows the behavior, which is often reinforcing to the person. Consequences refer to things thatoccur after the behavior has been performed that increase or maintain the behavior.
There are two types of Positive Reinforcements, UNCONDITIONED (or PRIMARY) and CONDITIONED (or SECONDARY) REINFORCEMENTS.
Unconditioned or Primary Reinforcements are things like food and water, or maybe even affection.
Conditioned or Secondary Reinforcements are those that have received its reinforcing value by learned means. They may have been paired with a primary source and have gained their reinforcing value that way.
refers to the increase in the likelihood or probability of a response by removing an aversive event immediately after the response has been performed.