Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology
2010-10-06 19:02:01

Medical Vocabulary & Abbreviations
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  1. AIDS
    AIDS is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood components, perinatally from mother to infant.
  2. agglutination (agglutinat - clumping; -ion process)
    process of clumping together, as of blood cells that are incompatible
  3. albumin
    one of a group of simple proteins found in blood plasma and serum
  4. allergy (all - other; -ergy work)
    individual hypersensitivity to a substance that is usually harmless.
  5. anaphylaxis (ana- up; -phylaxis protection)
    unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign proteins or other substances.
  6. anemia (an- lack of; -emia blood condition)
    literally a lack of red blood cells, it is a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells, the amount of the hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells.
  7. anisocytosis (anis/o - unequal; cyt - cell; -osis condition usually abnormal)
    condition in which the erythrocytes are unequal in size and shape
  8. antibody (anti- against; -body body)
    protein substance produced in the body in response to an invading foreign substance (antigen)
  9. anticoagulant (anti- against; coagul - clots; -ant forming)
    agent that works against the formation of blood clots
  10. antigen (anti- against; -gen formation, produce)
    invading foreign substance that induces the formation of antibodies.
  11. autoimmune disease
    condition in which the body's immune system becomes defective and produces antibodies against itself.
  12. coagulable (coagul - to clot; -able capable)
    capable of forming a clot
  13. corpuscle
    blood cell
  14. embolus
    blood clot carried in the bloodstream.
  15. erthroblast (erythr/o - red; -blast immature cell, germ cell)
    immature red blood cell
  16. erythrocyte (erythr/o - red; -cyte cell)
    red blood cell
  17. extravasation (extra- beyond; vas(at) - vessel; -ion process)
    process by which fluids and/or medications (IVs) escape into surrounding tissue.
  18. globulin (globul - globe; -in chemical)
    plasma protein found in body fluids and cells
  19. hematocrit (hemat/o - blood; -crit to separate) (Hct, HCT)
    blood test that separates solids from plasma in the blood by centrifuging the blood sample
  20. hematologist (hemat/o - blood; log - study of; -ist one who specializes)
    physician who specializes in the study of the blood
  21. hematoma (hemat - blood; -oma mass, fluid collection)
    collection of blood that has escaped from a vessel into the surrounding tissues
  22. hemochromatosis (hem/o - blood; chromat - color; -osis condition usually abnormal)
    genetic disease condition in which iron is not metabolized properly and accumulates in body tissues.
  23. hemoglobin (hem/o - blood; -globin globe, protein) (Hb, Hgb, HGB)
    blood protein; the iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
  24. hemolysis (hem/o - blood; -lysis destruction)
    destruction of red blood cells
  25. hemophilia (hem/o - blood; -philia attraction)
    hereditary blood disease characterized by prolonged coagulation and tendency to bleed
  26. hemorrhage (hem/o - blood; -rrhage bursting forth)
    excessive bleeding; bursting forth of blood
  27. hemostasis (hem/o - blood; -stasis control, stop, stand still)
    control or stopping of bleeding
  28. heparin
    substance found in the liver, lungs, and other body tissues that inhibits blood clotting (anticoagulant).
  29. hypoglycemia (hypo- deficient; glyc - sweet, sugar; -emia blood condition)
    condition of deficient amounts of sugar in the blood
  30. hypoxia (hyp- deficient; -oxia oxygen)
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood, cells, and tissues;
  31. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
    malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous (violet-colored) vascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy (diseased lymph nodes)
  32. leukapheresis (leuk/a - white; -pheresis removal)
    separation of white blood cells from the blood, which are then transfused back into the patient
  33. leukemia (leuk - white; -emia blood condition)
    disease of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes
  34. leukocyte (leuk/o - white; -cyte cell)
    white blood cell
  35. lymph
    clear, colorless, alkaline fluid found in the lymphatic vessels
  36. lymphedema (lymph - lymph; -edema swelling)
    abnormal accumulation of lymph in the interstitial spaces
  37. opportunistic infection
    protozoal (PCP or toxoplasmosis), fungal/yeast (candidiasis), viral (herpes simplex), or bacterial (TB) infection that occurs when the immune system is compromised.
  38. phagocytosis (phag/o - eat, engulf; cyt - cell; -osis condition usually abnormal)
    engulfing and eating of particulate substances such as bacteria, protozoa, cells and cell debris, dust particles, and colloids by phagocytes (leukocytes or macrophages)
  39. plasma
    fluid part of the blood
  40. plasmapheresis (plasma - a thing formed, plasma; -pheresis removal)
    removal of blood from the body and centrifuging it to separate the plasma from the blood and reinfusing the cellular elements back into the patient
  41. polycythemia (poly- many; cyt - cell; hem - blood; -ia condition)
    condition of too many red blood cells
  42. septicemia (septic - putrefying; -emia blood conditon)
    condition in which pathogenic bacteria are present in the blood
  43. seroculture (ser/o - whey, serum; -culture cultivation)
    bacterial culture of blood serum
  44. serum (ser(a) - whey, serum; -um tissue)
    clear, yellowish fluid that separates from the clot when blood clots
  45. sideropenia (sider/o - iron; -penia lack of)
    lack of iron in the blood
  46. stem cell
    cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to various types of blood cells
  47. thrombin (thromb - clot; -in chemical)
    blood enzyme that causes clotting by forming fibrin
  48. thrombocyte (thromb/o - clot; -cyte cell)
    clotting cell; a blood platelet
  49. transfusion (trans- across; fus - to pour; -ion process)
    process by which blood is transferred from one individual to the vein of another
  50. vasculitis (vascul - small vessel; -itis inflammation)
    inflammation of a lymph or blood vessel
  51. ABO
    blood groups
  52. AIDS
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  53. baso
  54. CBC
    complete blood count
  55. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  56. ELISA
    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  57. Hct, HCT
  58. HDN
    hemolytic disease of the newborn
  59. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  60. Ig
  61. IV
  62. KS
    Kaposi's sarcoma
  63. mL
  64. mono
  65. NK
    natural killer (cells)
  66. RBC
    red blood cell (count)
  67. TB
  68. WBC
    white blood cell (count)