WVU Psychology 101 test 3

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WVU Psychology 101 test 3
2010-10-04 17:16:37

test on Wedneday
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  1. A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
  2. A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a responce after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
    Classical Conditioning
  3. A stimulus that before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
    Neutral stimulus
  4. A stimulus that naturally brings about a particuluar response with out having being learned
    Unconditioned stimulus
  5. A response that is natural and needs no training
    unconditioned response
  6. A once neutral stimullus that has been paired with an unconditional stimulus to bring about a response formerly cause only by the unconditioned stimulus
    Conditioned stimulus
  7. Reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made
    fixed ratio
  8. Reinforcement only a fixed time period
    fixed interval
  9. Reinforcement occurs after a varifying number of responses rather than being fixed
    Variable interval
  10. When a stimulus procedes a response that is reinforced the stimulus starts to control that response
  11. Discriminative stimulus > response > reinforces
    Three-term contingency
  12. An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. Argues that in between stimulus and response there is the organism's view of the world
    Cognitive learning theory
  13. Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but in not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it; occurs "without" reinforcement
    Latent learning
  14. Characteristic ways of approaching learning, based on a person's cultural background and unique pattern of abilities
    Learning styles
  15. The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
  16. maintaining information over time
  17. recovery of stored information, remembering
  18. the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant
    sensory memory
  19. memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
    short term memory
  20. memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
    long term memory
  21. reflects information from the visual system
    Iconic memory
  22. stores auditory information coming from the ears
    Echoic memory
  23. Limited capacity- 7 plus or minus 2 items
    Short term meory
  24. A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short term memory
  25. Repeating information
    role repetition
  26. Occurs when the information is considered and organized in same fashion
    Elaborative rehearsal
  27. stratigies that we can use to vastly improve our retention; formal techniques for organizing information in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered
  28. involved in reasoning and decision making
    Central executive processor
  29. specializes in visual and spaticle information
    visual store
  30. holds and manipulates material related to speech, words, and numbers
    verbal store
  31. contains information that represents information or events
    episodic buffer
  32. memory for factual information: names, faces, dates
    declarative memory
  33. memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts
    semantic memory
  34. memory for events that occur in a particular place, time , or context
    episodic memory
  35. memory for the skills and habbits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as nondeclarative memory
    Procedural memory
  36. consolidate new memories
  37. emotions are stored with memories
  38. Neural pathways become activated when a new response is repeated (or being learned)
    Increased firing in a set of neurons
    Long term potentiation
  39. memories become fixed and stable in long term memory
  40. Specific bits of information must be retrieved
  41. specific, important, or shocking event, so vivid they seem to represent a virtual snapshot of the event
    Flashbulb memories
  42. processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning one gives to events
    constructive processes
  43. Information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled-expectations and pregudices
  44. recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious
    repressed memories
  45. recollections of circumstances and episdoes from our own lives; tend to forget information about our past that is incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves
    autobiographical memory
  46. memories may be inaccurate or even wholly false
    false memories
  47. the loss of information in memory through its nonuse
  48. the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information
  49. forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory
    cue-depepdent forgetting
  50. interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
    proactive interference
  51. interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different exposure
    retroactive interference
  52. an illness characterized in part and by severe memory problems and eventually physical deteriation
    Alzheimer's Disease
  53. A disease that afflicts long term alcoholics, leaving some abilities inact but including halluchinations and a tendency to repeat the same story
    Korsakoff's syndrome
  54. Amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain entent
  55. memory is lost for events that follow an injury